Desiring Transportation 1NC
A. Transportation infrastructure striates space by channeling mobility through government-approved conduits of desire. This excludes minorities from the planning process and allows for the segregation of entire communities in the name of efficiency.
Cresswell 2012 (Tim, Department of Geography Royal Holloway, University of London, “Constellations of Mobility,” www.dtesis.univr.it/documenti/Avviso/all/all181066.pdf.) Mobility is channelled. It moves along routes and conduits often provided by conduits in space. It does not happen evenly over a continuous space like spilt water flowing over a table top. In Deleuze and Guatarri’s account of nomadology they point out that it is not simply a case of free, mobile nomads challenging the ‘royal science” of fixed division and classification. Mobility itself is ‘channeled’ into acceptable conduits. Smooth space (the space of the nomad) is a field without conduits or channels The State needs to subordinate hydraulic force to conduits, pipes, embankments, which prevent turbulence, which constrain movement to go from one point to another, and space itself to be striated and measured, which makes the fluid depend on the solid, and flows proceed by parallel, laminar layers. The hydraulic model of nomad science and the War Machine, on the other hand, consists in being distributed by turbulence across a smooth space, in producing a movement that holds space and simultaneously affects all of its points, instead of being held by space in a local movement from one specified point to another. (Deleuze and Guattari, 1987, 362). Producing order and predictablility is not simply a matter of fixing in space but of channeling motion – of producing correct mobilities through the designation of routes. Stephen Graham and Simon Marvin have developed the notion of a “tunneling effect” in the contemporary urban landscape (Graham and Marvin, 2001). They show how the time-space of cities is warped by the routing of infrastructural elements ranging from roads to high-speed computer links. Valued areas of the metropolis are targeted so that they are drawn into “intense interaction with each other” while other areas are effectively disconnected from these routes (Graham and Marvin, 2001, 201). Think of highways which pass though the landscape but only let you get off at major hubs. Or think of high speed train lines that pass from airport to city centre while by-passing the inner-city in between. These ‘tunnels’ facilitate speed for some while ensuring the slowness of those who are by-passed. Routes provide connectivity which in turn transforms topographical space into topological and, indeed, dromological space: “Spacetime no longer corresponds to Euclidean space. Distance is no longer the relevant variable in assessing accessibility. Connectivity (being in relation to) is added to, or even imposed upon, contiguity (being next to)” (Offner, quoted in Graham and Marvin, 2001, 200). Think of the development of a commuter rail network in Los Angeles. Built at huge expense to facilitate speedy transit from suburb to city centre it effectively by-passed the predominantly black and Hispanic areas of the city. While train riders were disproportionately white, bus riders were overwhelmingly black, Hispanic and female. A radical social movement, the Bus Riders Union, took the Metropolitan Transit Association (MTA) to court in order to halt the use of public money to fund the train system at the expense of the bus system. In court the MTA made the claim that train lines passed through many minority areas of the city such as Watts. In response, the Bus Riders Union argued that the population of areas the train lines passed through was not the relevant fact. The arrival of the train line had been matched by the removal of bus services. While the bus services had stopped frequently along the corridor (serving a 95% minority community) the train hardly stopped at all and thus tended to...
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