In an E1 reaction, where E stands for elimination and 1 stands for unimolecular. The breaking of the C-LV bond is completed before any reaction occurs between the base to lose a hydrogen and form the carbon-carbon double bond . When the more substituted alkene is the dominant product, the reaction follows Zaitsev's rule. Zaitsev's rule states that the major product of a β-elimination reaction is the most stable alkene .Acid-Catalyzed Dehydration is the elimination of a molecule of water from adjacent carbon atoms. An alcohol can be converted to an alkene by dehydration, which is often brought on by heating the alcohol with either 85% phosphoric acid or concentrated sulfuric acid . The objective of this experiment is to dehydrate 3-methyl-3-pentanol to obtain the product mixture of isomeric alkenes 3-methyl-2pentene and 2-ethyl-1-butene. Then use the gas chromatography to separate the product mixture and analyze the composition .
Table of Reagents
|Name |Molecular Weight |Density |Melting Point |Boiling Point | |2-methylcyclohexnol |114.19 g/mol |0.921 g/cm3 |-9.5oC |165oC | |Phosphoric Acid |98 g/mol |1.88 g/cm3 |42.35oC |158oC | |Calcium Chloride |110.98 g/mol |2.15 g/cm3 |772oC |1,935oC |
Fig: The chart shows the reagents used in the laboratory experiment and information regarding the solvents.
The experiment started by gathering the supplies for distillation. In the vial, 2mL of 2-methylcyclohexanol and 1mL of phosphoric acid is added. The solvents are thoroughly mixed and a few boiling chips is added to help with the boil. The sand bath is set up with the thermometer and the sand will be heated up to 100oC and the vial containing the solvents will be placed on the sand and let to boil. The process should take about 30 minutes to start boiling. A beaker with a flask will be covered in ice and the water would be sucked out with the Pasteur pipette.
When the distillation process is completed, the distillated liquid would be saved. CaCl2 would be added to the liquid to prevent evaporation and allows distillate to dry over drying agent. Then the little container will be weighed empty, and then the container with the liquid will be weight.
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A gas chromatogram is a plot of a response against the retention time. Chemical substances as gases are retained on the liquid column (stationary phase) with a flow gas being the carrier (mobile phase) through the column. At the end of the column is some means of detection. The peak height or the peak area is used to quantitate the amount of substance. The number of peaks can also help determine whether or not one is dealing with a pure compound. Peak one has a retention time of .29 seconds and a peak area of 999.00. Peak two was found to have a retention time of .37 seconds and a peak area of 5067.00. The percent composition for peak one is 16.46884% and the percent composition for peak two is 83.53116%. The percent yield is given by the ratio of the experimental yield to the theoretical yield, which was found to be 52%.
All possible products were observed. Under kinetic control, a significant yield of 3-methlycyclohexane is expected...
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