Paid, non-personal, public communication about causes, goods and services, ideas, organizations, people, and places, through means such as direct mail, telephone, print, radio, television, and internet. An integral part of marketing, advertisements are public notices designed to inform and motivate. Their objective is to change the thinking pattern (or buying behavior) of the recipient, so that he or she is persuaded to take the action desired by the advertiser. When aired on radio or television, an advertisement is called a commercial. According to the Canadian-US advertising pioneer, John E. Kennedy (1864-1928), an advertisement is "salesmanship in print."
Main article: Marketing mix
The marketing mix has been the key concept to advertising. The marketing mix was suggested by Professor E. Jerome McCarthy in the 1960s. The marketing mix consists of four basic elements called the four P’s. Product is the first P representing the actual product. Price represents the process of determining the value of a product. Place represents the variables of getting the product to the consumer like distribution channels, market coverage and movement organization. The last P stands for Promotion which is the process of reaching the target market and convincing them to go out and buy the product.
Hierarchy of effects model
It clarifies the objectives of an advertising campaign and for each individual advertisement. The model suggests that there are six steps a consumer or a business buyer moves through when making a purchase. The steps are:
This approach suggests that an advertisement should contain a message or means that leads the consumer to a desired end state.
It is designed to move the consumer from understanding a product's benefits to linking...