Decision-making and critical thinking have a distinct relationship, it is a relationship where one is used as a support tool for the other. Critical Thinking is ... conceptualized as a process of active critical and creative inquiry. It is viewed as a cognitive approach to an active, rational assessment of information... and is based on an awareness and understanding of a set of logical analyses that permit a rational evaluation of arguments.' Decision making is rarely a matter of picking up a single problem and disposing of it in expeditious step-by-step fashion every problem comes with a context it's own history and the host of problems that coexist with it' it is more a process, a sequence of behavior, that stretches back into the murky past and forward into a murkier future it is a turbulent stream' It is within this framework that decision making models can be applied to specific situations within work and personal life. Specific models that can be applied to work situations include the following: 1.The Seven-Step Path to Better Decisions
2.Rational Decision-Making Model
The Seven-Step Path to Better Decisions includes the following Steps that are to lead towards the conclusion of making a better decision 1.STOP AND THINK think ahead. Stop the action for a time to allow for calm analysis. This is a powerful tool against poor choices. 2.CLARIFY GOALS What are you short, medium, and long term objectives or goals. A decision that fulfills the immediate can prevent realizing your long term goals 3.DETERMINE FACTS Have enough information to support a wise choice 4.DEVELOP OPTIONS You know what you want to achieve and have made your best judgment as to the relevant facts; make a list of options, a set of actions you can take to accomplish your goals. 5.CONSIDER CONSEQUENCES What does this really mean, what effect will this decision really have? 6.CHOOSE Make your decision.
7.MONITOR AND MODIFY Pretty much all hard decisions use imperfect information and "best effort" predictions, a percentage of them will be wrong. Ethical decision-makers need to monitor the effects of their choices. If they are not producing the intended results or are causing additional unintended and undesirable results, they re-assess the situation and make new decisions. Secondly, the Rational Decision-Making Model which is based on the U.S. Military's means of decision making in times of crisis. This rationalist decision-making model concludes (1) a set of possible outcomes is known; that an expected optimal outcome can be known to a high degree of confidence (2) calculations are based on similar past actions, assuming what affected past performance will similarly affect future performance. (3) Feedback causes corrections within the model for deviations to the plan. An assumption is that a great amount of information will lead to greater convergence or scenario likelyhood. In other words, greater information lowers ambiguity and uncertainty can be reduced by gathering necessary information. This model relies greatly on the reliability of information gathered. (4) this model presumes to be objective. Criteria are established and weighted mathematically, and the factors are added up, thus reducing the chance for subjectivity to drive the decision
The specific outline of the Rational Decision-Making Model contains the following steps, as applied to scenarios outside of the military decision scheme: 1.Set Organizational Goals and Objectives
3.Compare/evaluate alternatives using objective criteria and weights based on the leader's guidance 4.Choose among alternatives the one that best matches the criteria 5.Implement the decision
6.Command, lead and manage
7.Feedback loop-observe results and begin process again as required
Both of the models, Seven-Step Path to Better Decisions and the Rational Decision-Making Model seem very similar in...