An explanation of how decision-making is dealt with in economic analysis requires an examination of the main factors at play. These factors amongst others are looked at as a base for decision making. Supply and Demand are the most fundamental tools used in economic analysis. I will explain what demand is and how the demand curve is derived. I will also write about Supply and its relationship with Demand. I will examine equilibrium price (market clearing price) and how we can calculate or plot it. I will attempt to show how market surpluses and market shortages are caused and their effect on product prices. Factors of cost and the decisions regarding cost will be covered. I hope to covey how cost is correlated with price which in turn is dictated by market supply and demand configurations. Finally I will be discussing Marginal Analysis and its benefits for economic analysis. While there are many other factors involved in decision making these are the ones I have chosen to focus on for this essay.
Normally when the price of a good is decreased, the demand for that good will go up because its consumers can afford to buy more of it. This can be shown graphically. Figure 1.1:
Figure 1.1 shows a graphical representation of the demand curve for Yorkie Bars. On the vertical axis Price (P) is represented. The Quantity (Q) is represented on the horizontal axis. At a price of 2 only 4 bars were sold. When this price was brought down to 1 the quantity demanded of it went up to 18. The demand curve is derived by plotting a line threw these two points.
Supply and its curve essentially have very similar characteristics to demand although supply slopes in the upwards direction. The supply curve tells us how much producers are willing to sell at each price they receive in the market. When demand and supply are represented on the same graph an economist can determine where the equilibrium price is and if the price being charged is leading to a market surplus or...