The intensity I of a sound wave is measured in watts per metre squared ( ). The lowest intensity that the average human ear can detect, i.e. the threshold of hearing, is denoted by , where . The loudness of sound, i.e. its intensity level , is measured in decibels (dB), where . From this function a specific relationship between and can be drawn that holds true for any increase in intensity. By knowing the value of beta ( ), the value of can be found via manipulation of the logarithmic function, and by knowing the value of beta can by found by just taking the log of and multiplying it by ten. The intensity level of ordinary conversation is 65 dB. In order to find the intensity of normal conversation on must set beta to 65 dB and to . Afterwards, via using the division property of equality one joins like terms. Once the logarithm is alone, one can apply the properties of logarithms and separate the logarithm into two logarithms. The quotient rule for logarithms is applied to this equation, , where and . By the definition of the logarithmic function, if and only if , one knows that in order to cancel out the logarithm one must exponentiate the log to ten. When one does this one must also keep in mind that equality must be kept on both sides of the equation, so the -5.5 becomes the exponent of ten. After doing this, one knows that .

dB

.
If one wanted to find the intensity of the sound inside and automobile travelling at that has an intensity level of 75 dB one would follow the same procedure mentioned previously to find intensity. In addition to this method one can use a graphing calculator in order to make the finding of I simpler. By following the procedure one can use a Ti-82 graphing calculator to find the intensity I of a sound by knowing the intensity level b. The function used is just all the steps followed above summarized into one function. Enter

ENTER

By the use of the calculator, one finds the correct response in a quicker fashion than by working the problem out. However, in order to prove that the answer provided by the calculator is correct one should always work out the problem by hand. dB

Source of SoundIntensity Level (dB)Intensity ( )
Jet plane at 30m140 *
Threshold of pain120*1
Loud indoor rock concert120 *
Siren at 30m100*
Busy street traffic70 *
Quiet radio40*
Whisper20 *

The chart above is provided in order to assist in determining the relationship between Intensity Level (dB) and Intensity ( ). The values denoted by an * are values that were inserted during the investigation for this project. The process to find the values of Intensity with a given Intensity Level was already mentioned, but the process in order to find Intensity Level by knowing the Intensity of a sound was not. In order to find intensity level beta (b) from the equation one just takes the logarithm of and multiplies it by ten. The finding of the intensity level of a quiet radio by knowing its intensity will be the example to test the method.

After carrying out this process and the other to find all the missing values, a relationship between the increase of the values can be discerned. By carefully analyzing the table above, it can is concluded that while Intensity Level increase ten units, Intensity increase 10 times. By using a graphing utility to graph this can be easily noticed. By looking at the change in the graph between points (1,120) and (10,130) it is seen how the X-values (Intensity) increase ten times and how Y-values (Intensity Level) increase 10 units.

Given the formula it is very simple to show that the relationship holds true. In order to show that it is true, one must create two functions, and . is nothing but the original formula, and has the intensity I multiplied by 10. This multiplication by ten is meant to help prove that when I increases by ten times, B...

...BLM256 DATA COMMUNICATIONS
TUTORIAL FOR CHAPTER 3
PROBLEM 1:
Given figure shows the effect of eliminating higher-harmonic components of a square
wave and retaining only a few lower harmonic components. What would the signal look
like in the opposite case; that is, retaining all higher harmonics and eliminating a few
lower harmonics?
SOLUTION:
The signal would be low-amplitude, rapidly changing waveform like following signal.
PROBLEM 2:
Given an amplifier with an effective noise temperature of 10,000oK and a 10-MHz
bandwidth, what thermal noise level may we expect at its output?
SOLUTION:
N = 10 log k + 10 log T + 10 log B
= -228.6 dBW + 10 log 104 + 10 log 107
= -228.6 + 40 +70 = - 118.6 dBW
PROBLEM 3:
What is the thermal noise level of a channel with a bandwidth of 10 kHz carrying 1000
watts of power operating at 50oC?
SOLUTION:
N=1.38x10-23x(50+273)x10,000 = 4.5x10-17 watts
PROBLEM 4:
Given a channel with an intended capacity of 20 Mbps, the bandwidth of the channel is 3
MHz. Assuming white thermal noise, what signal to noise ratio is required to achieve
this capacity?
SOLUTION:
C=B log2 (1+SNR)
20x106=3x106x log2 (1+SNR)
log2 (1+SNR)=6.67
1+SNR=102
SNS=101
PROBLEM 5:
If an amplifier has a 30 dB voltage gain, what voltage ratio does the gain represent?
SOLUTION:
For a voltage ratio, we have
NdB=30=20log (V2/V1)
V2/V1=1030/20=101.5=31.6
PROBLEM 6:
If the solid curve in following figure represents sin( 2π ) , what does the dotted curve
represent? That is, the...

...Asset Selections: 6
Feedback & Control: 6
Assignment 2: 7
Transactions History 7
Portfolio Performance Vs. index Performance 9
1. Portfolio Performance vs. Dow Jones ETF Performance 10
Assignment 3 11
Portfolio Returns vs. Market Return 11
Assignment 1:
Introduction
Ayyad Co. is a financial institution, created by a group of five individuals investing their savings until their retirement age which is in 15 years. They decided to allocate USD 200,000 per person and then manage their portfolio by themselves to achieve their investment objectives. The purpose of this Investment Policy Statement is to establish guidelines for the Company’s investment portfolio. The statement also incorporates investment objectives that will be used for monitoring the progress of the Portfolio’s investment program.
Investment Objectives:
The investment objectives which are set by the company board of directors can be described by the following:
1- Annual absolute rate of return equal to 12%.
2- 2% higher than the composite benchmark consisting of market indexes weighted according to the expected target asset allocations stipulated by the Portfolio’s investment guidelines.
Risk Policy
1. Diversification: across and within asset classes is the primary means by which the company expects the Portfolio to avoid undue risk of large losses over long time periods. To protect the...

...Assignment Portfolio Theory and Management
Individual Assignment
Introduction
This report exams the performance of fund 49 from different perspectives. Then, I composed a portfolio for client Jim using fund 49 and other four asset classes. The report contains five parts, first part identifies the style of fund 49 and pick out its corresponding benchmark. Second part conducts performance evaluation by different ratios. Third part compares fund 49 and fund 50 from different aspects. Forth part exams whether Jim’s objectives under some assumptions can be achieved or not and also provides possible alternative scenarios to him.
1. If we want to know the fund style, we should use different style benchmarks to exam what my fund style is. Usually, according to factor model, we should run regression between Rf and six benchmarks together and exam the relationship between my fund and six benchmarks. Then we constrain α=0, Ʃβi=1 and 0<βi<1. So picking out the largest and most significant β is the way to define the fund style.
Rf=α+βL-B*FL-B+βL-G*FL-G+βL-V*FL-V+ΒM/S-B*FM/S-B+ΒM/S-G*FM/S-G+ ΒM/S-V*FM/S-V+ Ɛ
Unlike U.S financial market which contains substantial difference between value and growth, in Australian, the different styles have high correlation with each other.
So we can just use Jensen measure involves running regressions between six different Australian Equity Benchmarks less risk free rate (cash) and my fund 49 less risk free rate...

...the managed portfolio over the investment period, from the 12th March to the 11th of May 2012 being a period of nine trading weeks. This portfolio performance evaluation report is prepared to determine whether the portfolio had any abnormal performance and this could be done by better market timing as well as good stock selections by investors, by being able to identify whether the stock is over-performed or under-performed. Myportfolio will be assessed in terms of breath and depth followed by looking only at the depth of the performance of my portfolio. Depth is the size of the magnitude of the abnormal or excess returns earned by the manager, which is the ability to earn “above-average” returns whereas breadth refers to the number of different securities for which the manager can generate excess returns. This means that the ability to completely eliminate all non-systematic risk relative to the portfolio’s benchmark. The measurement of depth and breadth could be obtained through the regression analysis as well as risk adjusted performance measures, which would be the Capital Market Line (CML), Capital Allocation Line (CAL), the Sharpe Ratio and the M2 index. The depth of the portfolio is done by looking at the portfolio’s Security Characteristics Line (SCL) and the R2 together with the discussion of the slope and intercept and statistical significance. The Treynor Measure and the...

...TITLE OF THE STUDY:
A STUDY ON PORTFOLIO MANGEMENT
INTRODUCTION TO THE COMPANY:
Sharekhan Ltd. is one of the leading retail stock broking house of SSKI Group which is running successfully since 1922 in the country. It is the retail broking arm of the Mumbai-based SSKI Group, which has over eight decades of experience in the stock broking business. Sharekhan offers its customers a wide range of equity related services including trade execution on BSE, NSE, Derivatives, depository services, online trading, investment advice etc. The firm’s online trading and investment site - www.sharekhan.com - was launched on Feb 8, 2000.
PROFILE OF THE COMPANY:
Name of the company : Sharekhan ltd.
Year of Establishment : 1925
Headquarter : Sharekhan Ltd. , 10th Floor , Beta Building ,
Lodha iThink Techno Campus ,
Off. JVLR , Opp. Kanjurmarg Railway Station
Kanjurmarg (East)
Mumbai – 400042 , Maharashtra , India
Nature of Business : Service Provider
Services : Equities, Derivatives, Commodities, Mutual Fund
Portfolio Management, IPO, Depository Services...

...PaperThis assignment needs to consist of a portfolio analysis in a Microsoft Word document that is not to exceed three pages. You must also include your portfolio analysis in either Word or Excel. You must show how you calculated the answers.
1. Select four stocks from finance.yahoo.com, google.finance.com, or moneycentral.msn.com. One should be a clothing manufacturer, one should be a retailer, one should be an automobile manufacturer, and one should be a restaurant or food producer.
2. Obtain the closing price, the change in price from the previous day, and the beta.
3. Calculate the return on holding the stock for a day (this should be the change in price over the closing price).
4. Calculate a portfolio return with weights of 0.25 for each stock.
5. Calculate a weighted beta with weights of 0.25 for each stock.
6. Write up the implications of the portfolio return and risk with respect to what you learned about beta and the CAPM in 2-3 pages.
Answer:
Market Risk:
Market risk is the risk that reflects the effect of the project on a well-diversified stock portfolio. This is the risk which depends on the variance and correlation of the project or a particular stock with the stock market. Portfolio risk is the risk that one still bears after achieving full diversification, Portfolio risk is often called systematic or market risk as well.
The market risk of a stock...

...derivatives blew up, and other foundations were laid bare. Even the core of investing theories related to portfolios has come under pressure. Yet the belief in Modern Portfolio Theory has remained strong amongst the investors.
Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) is a theory that tells investors how to minimise risks associated with investment and at the same time, maximise return on the investments by proper resource allocation and diversifying theirportfolios – it is based on the theory that risk can be lessened by diversifying into uncorrelated asset classes. However, unless the correlations of the various asset classes are predictable, the reduction of risk may be lost.
Investors expect to be rewarded for the level of risk they are taking in a particular market. According to the theory, it's possible to construct an "efficient frontier" of optimal portfolios offering the maximum possible expected return for a given level of risk and there are four basic steps involved in portfolio construction: Security Valuation, Asset Allocation, Portfolio Optimization and Performance measurement.
This theory of portfolio selection was coined by Harry Markowitz in his paper ‘Portfolio Selection’ which was published in the Journal of Finance in March, 1952. Even before Markowitz in 1952, investors were familiar with the notion being able to reduce exposure to...

...
Assignment No 6
Diversification in Stock Portfolios
Introduction
Diversification is one of the key components of a successful investment portfolio. Almost all
experts advise the avoidance of concentrating all of your investments in one type. However,
many investors forget about diversification once they see a financially attractive stock and
concentrate all of their assets in it. Other investors make a similar mistake and being influenced
by their emotions fail to listen to their common sense whispering "Diversify".
Many companies have attracted their employees to investing in company stock as part of their
retirement plan through the provided matching of contributions. As a result most investors end
up concentrating their assets in company stock and forgetting about the importance of
diversification. Investing in your company's stock is not something bad. However, you should
own not only your company's stock, because if something bad happens with your company you
risk not only losing your job but all of your assets. Through diversifying your stocks among
different industries you decrease to a great extent the risk of losing your money..
Portfolio Diversification
You can use index funds or exchange traded funds to track a broader market index. This gives
you exposure to many different types of companies, without your...