Decentralized Planning in India

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What is Sectoral Planning and Spatial Planning?
When planning is done with a vision and mission to develop a particular sector only then the plan becomes a Setoral Plan. In Setoral Planning excessive concentration is given in economic activities of the metropolitan regions. In India it has benefitted the growth and development of Metro regions but failed to develop the rural and backward regions. In India 70% of the people live in rural area. To develop India the plan should be made to develop the rural regions which should include development plans for all the sectors influencing the region. Since development of one sector leads to impact on several sectors a comprehensive plan is to be prepared considering all the side effects and impacts on the related sectors other than concentrating on a particular sector. This has become a necessity in present scenario for the development of India. This concept of planning leads to the concept of Spatial Planning. Spatial planning refers to the methods and plans used to influence collectively the distribution of people and activities over a region in various scales. It is the consideration of what can and should happen in a region. It investigates the interaction of different policies and practice across regional space, and sets the role of places in a wider context. In Spatial planning, for a region the key influencing sectors are identified and a comprehensive plan is prepared considering all the sectors with proper coordination at various levels of inter-actions. Local development can be achieved thorough spatial planning approach, where in key development sectors are synergically co-ordinated. It is of utmost importance to prepare urban/local development plans with a long-term perspective by targeting various development sectors. Such a spatial plan is classically referred to as a Development Plan or Master Plan.

Planning Process in India
The planning system in India was more centralized one. In centralized...
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