Decentralization and Emergence of Local Government in Bangladesh

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Saeed Anwar Sociology Discipline Khulna University Introduction: Local government is an important element of all administrative systems. Local government is the system of government of a town or an area by elected representatives of the people who live there. The organization that is responsible for the government of a local area and for providing service etc. While some form of local government was obviously necessary and present in ancient civilizations, it is extremely difficult to relate the’ experiences in these civilizations with the modern variant of local government. Changes in the nature of states as well as new dimensions in the system of administration and in the patterns of international relations have all contributed to the current state of local government. Not only have these factors combined to produce a new and distinct pattern of local government, they have also led to the emergence of new problems in the administration. By local government we mean the administration of local areas run by its elective representatives. If the administration of local areas is run by the provincial or central government officers the administration shall be local but it shall not be local but it shall not be local self government. If the administration of local areas is run by the provincial or central government officers, the administration will be local. In modern states there is a great importance of the local government because the burden of the provincial and central government is lessened by it. Local government is also essential for the success of democracy. These institutions impart training to the citizens in the running of the government. Moreover, Democracy is made real in local government. Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a state. The term is used to contrast with offices at national state level, which are referred to as the central government, national government and federal government. In modern nations, local governments usually have fewer powers than national governments do. They usually have some power to raise taxes though these may be limited by central legislation. In some countries local government is partly or wholly funded by subventions from central government taxation.

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Local Government: Local government means the administration of local areas run by its elective representative. If the administration of local areas is run by the provincial or central government officers, the administration shall be local but it shall not be local self government. As a general rule central government is at the helm of a country and its inhabitants. But, in reality, it is next to impossible for a central government to ensure equal and equitable development of all areas of a country. Consequently, decentralization of power and authority as well as formation and promotion of strong local governments have turned out to be the possible and potential alternatives round the globe. Democracy is no doubt the most favored word the world over. Administrative Decentralization seeks to redistribute authority, responsibility and financial resources for providing public services among different levels of government. It is the transfer of responsibility for the planning, financing and management of certain public functions from the central government and its agencies to field units of government agencies, subordinate units or levels of government semi autonomous public authorities or corporations or area wide regional or functional authorities. Theoretical definitions: Laski says, “The institution of local government is educative to, perhaps a higher degree than any other part of government” Decentralization and emergence of local government in Bangladesh: Bangladesh emerged as an independent country on December 16, 1971 with an area of 147570 square K.M. It lies in the northeastern part of south Asia. The country is bound by India on the west and the north, by India and Burma on the...
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