DeCapua, A. & Wintergest, A.C. (2004). Chapter-2: More on culture. Crossing culture in the language classroom. Summary
The chapter “More on culture” provides a wide amount of knowledge. The two authors start off the chapter with a personal anecdote which sets the tone for the whole chapter. The theory begins with the subject “Individualistic versus collectivistic culture”. This theory tells the difference between the two cultures and in which regions these cultures are prevalent. Individual culture is described as a culture where a person views himself as autonomous, independent of groups, and reluctant or unwilling to subordinate personal goals to those of the group. On the other hand collectivistic culture is defined as a culture in which individuals are attached to their group, whether a family, a social group or other. Other aspects of these two cultures are discussed in details and a clear comparison is made with relevant examples. Further in the theory, authors bring a new subject, P and M time, to distinguish more between different cultures. P time stands for polychromic time and M time stands for monochromic time. Collectivistic culture is associated with P-time as in this type of culture individuals give more importance to personal involvement and the culmination of transactions over that of rigid adherence to timetables. Monochromic time is related with individualistic culture and therefor it places a high value on carefully scheduled time. “Face” is another thing which is associated with collectivistic culture particularly Asian cultures. Face is described as pride, dignity, honor and self-esteem, although it more than that as is explained further. Ethnocentric is described as the belief people have about the superiority of their culture which is more of an emotional judgment. Further authors describe stereotypes, attribution and their impacts on cross cultural societies. Later on authors describe cultural shock and its impacts on the people who have...
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