Hypnotherapy is therapy that is undertaken with a subject in hypnosis. The word "hypnosis" (from the Greek hypnos, "sleep") is an abbreviation of James Braid's (1841) term "neuro-hypnotism", meaning "sleep of the nervous system". A person who is hypnotized displays certain unusual characteristics and propensities, compared with a non-hypnotized subject, most notably hyper-suggestibility, which some authorities have considered a sine qua non of hypnosis. For example, Clark L. Hull, probably the first major empirical researcher in the field, wrote, If a subject after submitting to the hypnotic procedure shows no genuine increase in susceptibility to any suggestions whatever, there seems no point in calling him hypnotised...  Hypnotherapy is often applied in order to modify a subject's behavior, emotional content, and attitudes, as well as a wide range of conditions including dysfunctional habits, anxiety, stress-related illness, pain management, and personal development. Contents * 1 Definition * 1.1 Hypnotism versus mesmerism * 2 Definition of Hypnotherapist * 3 Modalities * 3.1 Traditional hypnotherapy * 3.2 Hypnoanalysis * 3.3 Ericksonian hypnotherapy * 3.4 Cognitive/behavioral hypnotherapy * 4 Uses * 4.1 Medical hypnosis * 4.1.1 Hypnosis in childbirth * 4.1.2 Hypnosis in surgery * 4.2 Psychotherapy * 5 Research * 5.1 Systematic reviews * 5.1.1 1890s * 5.1.2 1950s * 5.1.3 1990s * 5.1.4 2001 Report * 5.2 Meta-analyses * 6 History * 7 Training * 7.1 Professional membership boards * 7.1.1 USA * 220.127.116.11 US Definition of Hypnotherapist * 7.1.2 United Kingdom * 18.104.22.168 UK National Occupational Standards * 22.214.171.124 UK Confederation of Hypnotherapy Organisations (UKCHO) * 126.96.36.199 Working Group for Hypnotherapy Regulation * 7.1.3 Indian Restriction * 7.1.4 Australia * 8 Techniques * 9 In popular culture * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 External links
Hypnotism versus mesmerism
Hypnotism is often, mistakenly, thought to be the same as mesmerism, its historical precursor. According to Hans Eysenck,
The terms "mesmerise" and "hypnotise" have become quite synonymous, and most people think of Mesmer as the father of hypnosis, or at least as its discoverer and first conscious exponent. Oddly enough, the truth appears to be that while hypnotic phenomena had been known for many thousands of years, Mesmer did not, in fact, hypnotise his subjects at all. It is something of a mystery why popular belief should have firmly credited him with a discovery which in fact was made by others.(Eysenck, Sense & Nonsense in Psychology, 1957: 30-31) Franz Anton Mesmer held that trance and healing were the result of the channelling of a mysterious "occult" force called "animal magnetism." In the mid-18th Century, this became the basis of a very large and popular school of thought termed "Mesmerism". However, in 1843, the Scottish surgeon James Braid proposed the theory of hypnotism as a radical alternative, in opposition to Mesmerism. Braid argued that the occult qualities of Mesmerism were illusory and that its effects were due to a combination of "nervous fatigue" and verbal suggestion. A bitter war of words developed between Braid and the leading exponents of Mesmerism. I beg farther to remark, if my theory and pretensions, as to the nature, cause, and extent of the phenomena of nervous sleep [i.e., hypnotism] have none of the fascinations of the transcendental to captivate the lovers of the marvellous, the credulous and enthusiastic, which the pretensions and alleged occult agency of the mesmerists have, still I hope my views will not be the less acceptable to honest and sober-minded men, because they are all level to our comprehension, and reconcilable with well-known...
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