Ddt vs Malaria

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  • Topic: Malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium
  • Pages : 6 (2065 words )
  • Download(s) : 12
  • Published : April 15, 2013
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Malaria is one of the most lethal diseases in the world. It origins from the parasites, and the deadliest of the four species of the parasite is Plasmodium falciparum (Cross, 2004). The cell life in Plasmodium falciparum consists of two stages: the sexual and asexual cycle. Specific vector and host are required to complete this life cycle. The malaria parasite first needs a vector, in which the parasite reaches sexual maturity. With the transmission by the vector, the asexual multiplication of the parasite takes place in their final hosts (Arnot, D. et al., 2002). In the general case, malaria is highly contagious and it can be transmitted by Anopheles darlingi through their bites on human (Hommel, 1999). Female Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes have a long tapering mouthpart that can be used to stick into people’s skin to suck blood. Absorbing human blood is not only a good way to supply Anopheles darlingi’s reproduction, but it also increases the probability to transit the malaria parasite (Richards et al., 2009). Once inside a human, the parasite develops and multiplies, and it will further kill blood cells and substantially threatens the human health by causing acute infections and other severe syndromes (Cross, 2004). Malaria is found globally but Amazon provides the best evidence of its presence. It essentially attributes to the vibrant activities of A. darling. Amazon possesses abundant resource of tropical forests, but human activities raised a lot of environmental issues in the history of this area. According to Vittor (2006), several epidemics of malaria attributed historical population boom in the city of Iquitos, from barely 200 people in 1842 to 305,514 in 1993. Deforestation, one of the biggest problems caused by human alteration, is typically found to lead to an increased incidence of malaria. Deforestation largely shaped the local ecosystem, which created a better living condition for A. darlingi. Reduced trees lead to less water uptakes and more compaction of soils, which further increase the area of standing water. Lightly sedimented water is the most favorite place for A. darlingi to reproduce (Vittor, 2006). Less amount of trees also enable more sunlight to warm the standing water on the ground, which increases the metabolic and reproductive rate of A. darling. Thus, deforestation eventually increases A. darlingi biting rate and instances of getting malaria. In order to minimize the damage caused by malaria, a controversial solution has been brought on the table for many countries. People have found single most effective tool for fighting malaria up to now, which is called DDT. DDT is a type of insecticide which has been very successfully used for many years around the world. It is also recommended for malaria control by a lot of people, but many of the others do not agree. Proponents believe that DDT is very efficient in killing insects and protect crops. DDT is metabolic resistant and it becomes extremely persistent in cold temperature (WHO, 2008). Protesters attack this point by emphasizing DDT’s inherent environmental hazards. DDT is very lipid soluble, which allows it to accumulate in lipid compartments of an organism. Nerve cells, for instance, have a lipid structure called plasma membrane. This membrane keeps the nutrition balance of the cell by separating the inside materials from the outside. However, DDT can easily dissolve into the plasma membrane and disrupt this function and therefore impact the health of organism (Szaflarski et al., 2005). Protesters also bring another two major side effects resulted from the use of DDT. One is the toxicity to human. DDT has a persistent toxicity in many animals (for example, fish) that could be passed up food chain and eventually harm the human body (USFWS, 2013). Another terrible influence is on certain raptorial birds, such as the Bald Eagle. The passage of DDT through food chains can cause thinning of the egg shells of the Bald Eagle and thus largely...
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