Directions: You have 20 minutes to plan, write, and revise your response to a reading passage and a lecture on the same topic. First, read the passage and take notes. Then, listen to the lecture and take notes. Finally, write your response to the writing question. Typically, a good response will require that you write 150-225 words.
Historically, schools in the United States have borrowed the European system of school organization, a system that separates students into grades by chronological age. In general, children begin formal schooling at the age of six in what is referred to as the first grade. For the most part, students progress through twelve grades; however, some students who do not meet minimum requirements for a particular grade may be asked to repeat the year. Graded schools are divided into primary grades, intermediate grades, and secondary grades. Primary education includes grades 1 through 5 or 6, and may also provide kindergarten as a preparation for first grade. Referred to as elementary school, these grades are usually taught by one teacher in a self-contained classroom. Intermediate grades begin with grade 6 or 7 and offer three years of instruction. At this level, teams of teachers may collaborate to provide subject-based classes similar to those offered in high school. Viewed as a preparation for high school, intermediate education is known as junior high school. At grade 9 or 10, secondary school begins. Classes taught by subject specialists usually last about fifty minutes to allow a student ten minutes to move to the next class before it begins at the top of the hour. At the end of twelve successful grades of instruction, students are eligible for a secondary school diploma, more commonly called a high school diploma. Question: Summarize the main points in the lecture, explaining how they cast doubt on the ideas in the reading passage. Test2
Do computers think? It isn’t a new question. In fact, Alan Turing, a British mathematician, proposed an experiment to answer the question in 1950, and the test, known as the Turing Test, is still used today. In the experiment, a group of people are asked to interact with something in another room through a computer terminal. They don’t know whether it is another person or a computer that they are interacting with. They can ask any questions that they want. They can type their questions onto a computer screen, or they can ask their questions by speaking into a microphone. In response, they see the answers on a computer screen or they hear them played back by a voice synthesizer. At the end of the test, the people have to decide whether they have been talking to a person or to a computer. If they judge the computer to be a person, or if they can’t determine the difference, then the machine has passed the Turing Test. Since 1950, a number of contests have been organized in which machines are challenged to the Turing Test. In 1990, Hugh Loebner sponsored a prize to be awarded by the Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies-a gold medal and a cash award of $100,000 to the designer of the computer that could pass the Turing Test; however, so far, no computer has passed the test. Question: Summarize the main points in the reading passage, and then explain how the lecture casts doubt on the ideas in the reading. Test3
The design for the Sydney Opera House was selected from entries in an international competition held in 1956. From more than 230 designs submitted by major architectural firms worldwide, the committee selected a dramatic concept by Jorn Utzon, a Danish architect who was virtually unknown outside of Denmark. He described his work as more like a sculpture than a building because it appeared to change shape depending on the direction from which it was viewed. He was also very committed to organic principles, which dictated that the structure must fit in with the environment. Situated in Bennelong Point, a promontory that...