Hosni Mubarak in 2009
Hosni Mubarak became head of Egypt's semi-presidential republic government following the 1981 assassination of President Anwar El Sadat, and continued to serve until 2011. Mubarak's 30-year reign made him the longest-serving President in Egypt's history, with his National Democratic Party (NDS) government maintaining one-party rule under a continuous state of emergency. Mubarak's government earned the support of the West and a continuation of annual aid from the United States by maintaining policies of suppression towards Islamic militants and peace with Israel. Hosni Mubarak was often compared to an Egyptian pharaoh by the media and by some of his critics due to his authoritarian rule. Inheritance of power
Gamal Mubarak in 2006
Main article: Gamal Mubarak
Gamal Mubarak, the younger of Mubarak's two sons, began to be groomed to succeed his father as the next president of Egypt around the year 2000. Gamal started receiving considerable attention in the Egyptian media, as there were no other apparent heirs to the presidency. Bashar al-Assad's rise to power in Syria in June 2000, just hours after Hafez al-Assad's death, sparked a heated debate in the Egyptian press regarding the prospects for a similar scenario occurring in Cairo. In the years after Mubarak's 2005 reelection several political groups (most in Egypt are unofficial), on both the left and the right, announced their sharp opposition to the inheritance of power. They demanded political change and asked for a fair election with more than one candidate. In 2006, with opposition rising, The Daily News Egypt reported on an online campaign initiative, called the National Initiative against Power Inheritance, which demanded Gamal reduce his power. The campaign stated, "President Mubarak and his son constantly denied even the possibility of [succession]. However, in reality they did the opposite, including amending the...