Data base approach focuses on data integration and data sharing, views data as an organizational resource
Data Base Management System (DBMS) refers to programs that control the data and interfaces between the data and application programs
The data based, DBMS, and the application programs together are termed as data base system
Data base administrator is the person responsible for the data base.
Data base systems separate logical and physical views of data, referred to as program-data independence Logical view - how the user or programmer conceptually organizes and understands data Physical view - how and where the data are physically arranged and stored on storage medium
Advantages of program-data independence
Application programmers can code application logic without concern for physical storage the logical view of the task can be changed without changing the physical data storage
Schema - logical structure of the data base
Conceptual level schema - organization wide view of entire data base External level schema - individual user views of data, subschema Internal level schema - low-level view of data based, how data are stored DBMS translates user requests at logical level into physical actions Accountants are involved with conceptual and external levels, rarely the internal level.
Data Dictionary - information on the structure of the data base Each data element is described in detail.
Usually maintained automatically by DBMS
Output of data dictionary often includes
Programs where data items are used.
List of synonyms
Data elements used by a user
List of output reports where data element is used.
DBMS languages - functions of creating, changing and querying Data definition language (DDL) - build data dictionary, initialize, describe logical views, specify security imposed on users. Data manipulation language (DML) - data maintenance, updating, inserting and deleting, references only data...
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