Dawkins and Kozol

Topics: Richard Dawkins, Gene, The Selfish Gene Pages: 9 (3187 words) Published: September 9, 2012

The Meme concept from Dawkins and the Educational Funding concept from Kozol Kevin Edmundson

Oklahoma University

LSTD-5013 Interdisciplinary Foundations

The Meme concept from Dawkins and the Educational Funding concept from Kozol

Jonathan Kozol, one of the most zealous advocates of the idea, wrote a series of books, which depict below the critical school, where children from poor, mostly belonging to national minorities families, teaching staff consists of an inexperienced youth, and indifferent to their cause losers who care only about maintaining discipline, stimulating the imagination of children are neglected. Kozol points out that schools are mainly funded from property tax, and therefore, although the tax rate for the same counties and in cities like New York and Chicago real budget-rich school districts can be twice the budget of the poor: In reality, there is the phenomenon of closed circle. Rich counties - where the houses and land are valued more - receive a tax on land and housing more money and go to fund their free public schools. good reputation for schools, in turn, enhances the reputation of the area and, accordingly, and the market price of housing - and with it the tax base for contributions in public schools. ability to charge relatively low compared to the less wealthy areas of taxes and still get more money stimulates a further rise in real estate, which again means more money for it, to reduce class and add teachers' salaries in public schools. Dawkins was not the first to propose that natural selection operating on genes, nor was the first to say that selfishness is the basis of biological evolution. Williams, Hamilton and others had argued decisively in 1966 we had to discard the idea that natural selection operated on the basis of species, families, groups or individuals. On the other hand, the idea of ​​biological selfishness is the orthodoxy from almost the origin of Darwin's theory and only some unorthodox, as the anarchist Kropotkin, have tried to show, with little success, altruism can also play an important role in books like Mutual Support. Despite Dawkins's insistence on mentioning loyally to their predecessors, many people believe he was the first to propose two ideas of natural selection operating on genes and selfishness of genes. Today, the selfish gene theory, or that a less anthropomorphic (it is a bit risky to attribute selfish genes), the theory that natural selection operates on genes, is more or less accepted as a possible vision the manner in which evolution works. It has even become part of official science, teaching in schools. For some, even the orthodox version of the theory of evolution. This does not mean you do not have detractors, since evolution is an area where there are few certainties and many general questions as we descend to details. For Dawkins, memes are replicators, units of cultural transmission. A replicator, as its name suggests, is something that can replicate. The best known replicators are genes that make copies of themselves: a DNA molecule can replicate and give rise to two DNA molecules identical to the original. Other non-biological replicators can be clays, especially kaolinite, which are created from an earlier and, according to some biologists, such as Cairns Smith, may be related to the origin of life.

Discussion & Analysis
From the findings Kozol not everyone agrees. Statistics confirmed many times that one of the most popular medicines Kozol - reducing the number of children in the class - improves performance only in the case quite so radical reduction of the group, and that we can not afford. Eric Hanushek of the University of Rochester, in his book Making Schools Work, summarizing the discovery of experts in economics of education, said that, although in this decade, spending on education has been steadily growing, cash...
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