Database Management

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CONTENTS

PREFACE
Part I
1

BASICS

1

INTRODUCTION TO DATABASE SYSTEMS
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5

3

Overview
A Historical Perspective
File Systems versus a DBMS
Advantages of a DBMS
Describing and Storing Data in a DBMS
1.5.1 The Relational Model
1.5.2 Levels of Abstraction in a DBMS
1.5.3 Data Independence
Queries in a DBMS
Transaction Management
1.7.1 Concurrent Execution of Transactions
1.7.2 Incomplete Transactions and System Crashes
1.7.3 Points to Note
Structure of a DBMS
People Who Deal with Databases
Points to Review

4
5
7
8
9
10
11
14
15
15
16
17
18
18
20
21

THE ENTITY-RELATIONSHIP MODEL

24

2.1

24
25
26
27
30
30
32
33
35
37

1.6
1.7

1.8
1.9
1.10

2

xxii

2.2
2.3
2.4

Overview of Database Design
2.1.1 Beyond the ER Model
Entities, Attributes, and Entity Sets
Relationships and Relationship Sets
Additional Features of the ER Model
2.4.1 Key Constraints
2.4.2 Participation Constraints
2.4.3 Weak Entities
2.4.4 Class Hierarchies
2.4.5 Aggregation

vii

viii

Database Management Systems
2.5

2.6
2.7

3

Conceptual Database Design With the ER Model
2.5.1 Entity versus Attribute
2.5.2 Entity versus Relationship
2.5.3 Binary versus Ternary Relationships *
2.5.4 Aggregation versus Ternary Relationships *
Conceptual Design for Large Enterprises *
Points to Review

38
39
40
41
43
44
45

THE RELATIONAL MODEL

51

3.1

52
55
56
57
59
61
62
64
66
67
67
69
71
73
74
75
76
78
79
79
82
83

3.2

3.3
3.4
3.5

3.6

3.7
3.8

Part II
4

Introduction to the Relational Model
3.1.1 Creating and Modifying Relations Using SQL-92
Integrity Constraints over Relations
3.2.1 Key Constraints
3.2.2 Foreign Key Constraints
3.2.3 General Constraints
Enforcing Integrity Constraints
Querying Relational Data
Logical Database Design: ER to Relational
3.5.1 Entity Sets to Tables
3.5.2 Relationship Sets (without Constraints) to Tables
3.5.3 Translating Relationship Sets with Key Constraints
3.5.4 Translating Relationship Sets with Participation Constraints 3.5.5 Translating Weak Entity Sets
3.5.6 Translating Class Hierarchies
3.5.7 Translating ER Diagrams with Aggregation
3.5.8 ER to Relational: Additional Examples *
Introduction to Views
3.6.1 Views, Data Independence, Security
3.6.2 Updates on Views
Destroying/Altering Tables and Views
Points to Review

RELATIONAL QUERIES

RELATIONAL ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS
4.1
4.2

Preliminaries
Relational Algebra
4.2.1 Selection and Projection
4.2.2 Set Operations
4.2.3 Renaming
4.2.4 Joins
4.2.5 Division
4.2.6 More Examples of Relational Algebra Queries

89
91
91
92
93
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96
97
99
100

ix

Contents
4.3

4.4
4.5

5

Relational Calculus
4.3.1 Tuple Relational Calculus
4.3.2 Domain Relational Calculus
Expressive Power of Algebra and Calculus *
Points to Review

106
107
111
114
115

SQL: QUERIES, PROGRAMMING, TRIGGERS

119

5.1
5.2

121
121
126
127
129
132
132
134
135
136
138
140
143
147
147
148
148
149
150
150
151
152
153
153
155
156
157
158
159
161
161
162
163
164
165
166
167

5.3
5.4

5.5

5.6

5.7

5.8

5.9
5.10

5.11

5.12
5.13

About the Examples
The Form of a Basic SQL Query
5.2.1 Examples of Basic SQL Queries
5.2.2 Expressions and Strings in the SELECT Command
UNION, INTERSECT, and EXCEPT
Nested Queries
5.4.1 Introduction to Nested Queries
5.4.2 Correlated Nested Queries
5.4.3 Set-Comparison Operators
5.4.4 More Examples of Nested Queries
Aggregate Operators
5.5.1 The GROUP BY and HAVING Clauses
5.5.2 More Examples of Aggregate Queries
Null Values *
5.6.1 Comparisons Using Null Values
5.6.2 Logical Connectives AND, OR, and NOT
5.6.3 Impact on SQL Constructs
5.6.4 Outer Joins
5.6.5 Disallowing Null Values
Embedded SQL *
5.7.1 Declaring Variables and Exceptions
5.7.2 Embedding SQL Statements...
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