Fixed line telephones was the main form of communication in 1877 and this was the case up to the time when cellular phone came into the world. Fixed lines are in every home and building today so everyone has the ability to have telephone and data service. To receive or transmit data over the fixed line a modem is needed on each end of the line. The modem takes the digital information and turns it into tones that have been specifically selected for the transmission over the telephone network. The modem on the other end is responsible for turning the tones back into the digital data. Modems transmit data over a telephone network that is designed for voice so the data rates were limited until digital subscriber line (DSL) was introduced. DSL utilizes the existing analog phone line so no need for new equipment other than modems that can convert the digital data into high-frequency tones along with a filter at the subscribers end to keep the DSL transmission from being heard on the telephone. The conventional modem operated at the frequency range of 300 to 3,000 Hz but a DSL modem will need to operate a higher frequency range which will allow for a much higher
data rate. The data rate was capped at 56,000 bps with the conventional modem but with the DSL modem the data rate is based on several physical characteristics. One of the major physical characteristics is the cable length, the farther away from the central office the lower the data... [continues]
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