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nutrient Metabolism

Dietary Chromium Supplementation with or without
Somatotropin Treatment Alters Serum Hormones
and Metabolites in Growing Pigs without Affecting
Growth Performance1«2
CHRISTINA M. EVOCK-CLOVER,3 MARILYN M. POLANSKY,*
RICHARD A. ANDERSON*
AND NORMAN C. STEELE
Nonruminant Animal Nutrition Laboratory and *Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Laboratory, USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Beltsuille, MD 20705

increase in insulin internalization
in rat muscle cells
(Evans and Bowman 1992) with a concomitant
in
crease in glucose and leucine uptake. Chromium
chloride and chromium nicotinate had no effect.
Chromium supplementation
to diets of pigs has
been shown to increase the percentage of muscle by
7% and longissimus dorsi muscle area by 18%, while
reducing 10th rib fat 20% and serum cholesterol 19%
(Page et al. 1993) when fed from 30 kg body weight
until slaughter at 100 kg. Chromium
response was
specific for CrP. Other forms tested, including
chromium chloride, were without effect. Similarly,
porcine
somatotropin
(pST) markedly
improves
growth performance and carcass composition of pigs

'Mention

INDEXING KEY WORDS:

of a trade name, proprietary

product or vendor does

not constitute a guarantee or warranty of the product by USDA or imply its approval to the exclusion of other products or vendors that also may be suitable.
2The costs of publication of this article were defrayed in pan by

•pigs •chromium
•somatotropin •growth

the payment of page charges. This article must therefore be hereby marked "advertisement"
in accordance with 18 USC section 1734
solely to indicate this fact.
3To whom correspondence should be addressed: USDA-ARS,
NANL, Bldg. 200, Room 201, BARC-East, 10300 Baltimore Blvd., Beltsville, MD 20705.
4Abbreviations used: CrP, chromium picolinate; IGFBP, insulinlike growth factor binding protein,- IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor 1; ppST,
pituitary
porcine
somatotropin;
pST,
porcine
somatotropin.

Chromium is an essential micronutrient
involved
in both carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Insuffi
cient dietary chromium is associated with increased
risk factors linked with noninsulin-dependent
dia
betes and cardiovascular disease. Variables in humans
that
have been shown
to improve
following
0022-3166/93

$3.00 ©1993 American

Institute

of Nutrition.

Received 12 January 1993. Accepted 26 April 1993.
1504

Downloaded from jn.nutrition.org by guest on October 1, 2011

chromium
supplementation
include fasting blood
glucose concentration
and glucose tolerance, serum
insulin and insulin binding, total cholesterol
and
HDL cholesterol (Anderson 1992).
The nature of the chromium salt used greatly in
fluences its effectiveness.
For example, chromium
picolinate (CrP)4 addition to culture media led to an

ABSTRACT Twenty-four castrated
male pigs were
used in a 2 x 2 treatment array to determine the main
effects of and interactions between dietary chromium
supplementation
and pituitary porcine somatotropin
(ppST) administration
on growth performance and
serum hormone and metabolite concentrations.
The
treatments were 1) control (basal diet); 2) chromium
(basal diet + 300 /
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