Data Encryption

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  • Topic: Encryption, Cryptography, Cipher
  • Pages : 11 (3732 words )
  • Download(s) : 136
  • Published : November 14, 2010
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ENCRYPTION
Introduction
Often there has been a need to protect information from 'prying eyes'. In the electronic age, information that could otherwise benefit or educate a group or individual can also be used against such groups or individuals. Industrial espionage among highly competitive businesses often requires that extensive security measures be put into place. And, those who wish to exercise their personal freedom, outside of the oppressive nature of governments, may also wish to encrypt certain information to avoid suffering the penalties of going against the wishes of those who attempt to control. Still, the methods of data encryption and decryption are relatively straightforward, and easily mastered. I have been doing data encryption since my college days, when I used an encryption algorithm to store game programs and system information files on the university mini-computer, safe from 'prying eyes'. These were files that raised eyebrows amongst those who did not approve of such things, but were harmless [we were always careful NOT to run our games while people were trying to get work done on the machine]. I was occasionally asked what this "rather large file" contained, and I once demonstrated the program that accessed it, but you needed a password to get to 'certain files' nonetheless. And, some files needed a separate encryption program to decipher them. Fortunately, my efforts back then have paid off now, in the business world. I became rather good at keeping information away from 'prying eyes', by making it very difficult to decipher. Our D.P.T. application has an encrypted 'authorization code' scheme, allowing companies to evaluate a fully-featured version of the actual software before purchasing it, and (when licensed) a similar scheme authorizes a maximum number of users based on the license purchased by the customer. Each of these features requires some type of encrypted data to ensure that the 'lockout' works correctly, and cannot be bypassed, protecting both our interests and preserving the 'full-featured demo' capability for our customers.

Methods of Encrypting Data
Traditionally, several methods can be used to encrypt data streams, all of which can easily be implemented through software, but not so easily decrypted when either the original or its encrypted data stream are unavailable. (When both source and encrypted data are available, code-breaking becomes much simpler, though it is not necessarily easy). The best encryption methods have little effect on system performance, and may contain other benefits (such as data compression) built in. The well-known 'PKZIP®' utility offers both compression AND data encryption in this manner. Also DBMS packages have often included some kind of encryption scheme so that a standard 'file copy' cannot be used to read sensitive information that might otherwise require some kind of password to access. They also need 'high performance' methods to encode and decode the data. Fortunately, the simplest of all of the methods, the 'translation table', meets this need very well. Each 'chunk' of data (usually 1 byte) is used as an offset within a 'translation table', and the resulting 'translated' value from within the table is then written into the output stream. The encryption and decryption programs would each use a table that translates to and from the encrypted data. In fact, the 80x86 CPU's even have an instruction 'XLAT' that lends itself to this purpose at the hardware level. While this method is very simple and fast, the down side is that once the translation table is known, the code is broken. Further, such a method is relatively straightforward for code breakers to decipher - such code methods have been used for years, even before the advent of the computer. Still, for general "unread ability" of encoded data, without adverse effects on performance, the 'translation table' method lends itself well. A modification to the 'translation table' uses 2 or more...
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