The electronic age has brought forth many technological advances. With these advances came the need for security and tighter control on how we send information electronically over the Internet or through a network. Date encryption is, in its simplest terms, the translation of data into a secret code. In order to read an encrypted file, the receiver of the file must obtain a secret key that will enable him to decrypt the file. A deeper look into cryptography, cryptanalysis, and the Data Encryption Standard (DES) will provide a better understanding of data encryption. Cryptographic Methods There are two standard methods of cryptography, asymmetric encryption and symmetric encryption. Data that is in its original form (unscrambled) is called plaintext. Once the data is scrambled and in its encrypted form it is called cipher text. The cipher text, which should be unintelligible to anyone not holding the encryption key, is what is stored in the database or transmitted down the communication line. Asymmetric encryption (also know as public key encryption) uses two separate keys, a public key and a private key. The private key is available only to the individual receiving the encrypted message. The public key is available to anyone who wishes to send data or communicate to the holder of the private key. Asymmetric encryption is considered very safe but is susceptible to private key theft or breaking of the private key (this is virtually impossible and would constitute trying billions of possible key combinations) (4). Types of public key algorithms include Riverst-Shamir-Adelman (RSA), Diffie-Hellman, Digital Signature Standard (DSS), EIGamal, and LUC (5). Symmetric encryption uses only one key (a secret key) to encrypt and decrypt the message. No public exchange of the key is required. This method is vulnerable if the key is stolen or if the ciphertext is broken (4). Types of symmetric algorithms include DES, Blowfish, International Data Encryption Algorithm...

...DataEncryption Standard
In 1972, the NBS Institute for Computer Sciences and Technology (ICST) initiated a project in computer security, a subject then in its infancy. One of the first goals of the project was to develop a cryptographic algorithm standard that could be used to protect sensitive and valuable data during transmission and in storage. Prior to this NBS initiative, encryption had been largely the concern of military and intelligence organizations. The encryption algorithms, i.e., the formulas or rules used to encipher information, that were being used by national military organizations were closely held secrets. There was little commercial or academic expertise in encryption. One of the criteria for an acceptable encryption algorithm standard was that the security provided by the algorithm must depend only on the secrecy of the key, since all the technical specifications of the algorithm itself would be made public. NBS was the first to embark on developing a standard encryption algorithm that could satisfy a broad range of commercial and unclassified government requirements in information security. Ruth M. Davis, then Director of ICST, asked the National Security Agency (NSA) to help evaluate the security of any cryptographic algorithm that would be proposed as a Federal standard. She then initiated the standard’s development project by publishing...

...Cryptography is the science of using mathematics to encrypt and decrypt data. Cryptography enables you to store sensitive information or transmit it across insecure networks (like the Internet) so that it cannot be read by anyone except the intended recipient. When Julius Caesar sent messages to his generals, he didn't trust his messengers. Subsequently, he devised a method of disguising his messages so only the intended recipient could decipher it. Only someone who knew Caesar’s "shift" rule could decipher his messages (Network Associates, Inc., 1990-1999). The Caesar cipher is one of the earliest known and simplest forms of cryptography. It is a type of substitution cipher in which each letter in the plaintext is shifted a certain number of places down the alphabet. For example, with a shift of 1, A would be replaced by B, B would become C, and so on (Lyons, 2009 - 2012). Caesar’s encryption method would be known as symmetric cryptography today.
Cryptography is considered not only a part of the branch of mathematics, but also a branch of computer science. There are two forms of cryptosystems: symmetric and asymmetric. Symmetric cryptosystems involve the use of a single key known as the secret key to encrypt and decrypt data or messages. When a message is sent, the user encrypts the message with a key which is known only to the intended recipient. The receiver will then use the known key to decrypt the message back into...

...DATAENCRYPTION AND DECRYPTION WITH ELLIPTIC CURVE CRYPTOGRAPHY
Ravi Kumar Kodali
Department of ECE National Institute of Technology Warangal,506004,INDIA
Abstract—Elliptic curve cryptography is the most popular cryptographic technique that provides higher security with a lesser key size.ECC Encryption and Decryption are implemented through Elliptic curve points operations like point addition,subtraction,doubling and scalar point multiplication.ECC cryptography technique is quite useful for WSN Applications.The security level increases with a larger keysize.The paper focuses on the implementation of ECC encryption and decryption with a key size of 163 bits.
proposed independently by Neal Koblitz and Victor Miller in 1985. They found the elliptic curve equation while for the arc length of an ellipse. Elliptic Curve is deﬁned by the following Weierstrass Equation: y 2 + (a1 xy) + a3 y = x3 + a2 x2 + a4 x + a6 (1)
Keywords: ECC,Encryption,Decryption,Key size I. INTRODUCTION Cryptography is the science and study of secret writing. The Cryptography means scrambling or modifying the information in such a way that it is not understandable and hence information is hidden from an unauthorized person. The main objectives of cryptography are Conﬁdentiality (the information cannot be understandable to anyone except to the intended person), Integrity (the information cannot be altered by third person...

...International DataEncryption Algorithm
CS-627-1
Fall 2004
By
How-Shen Chang
Table of Contents:
Introduction 2
Description of IDEA 3
Key Generation 3
Encryption 4
Decryption 6
Modes of operation 6
Weak keys for IDEA 6
Implementation 7
Applications 8
Conclusion 9
Introduction
The DataEncryption Standard (DES) algorithm has been a popular secret key encryption algorithm and is used in many commercial and financial applications.
Although introduced in 1976, it has proved resistant to all forms of cryptanalysis. However, its key size is too small by current standards and its entire 56 bit key space can be searched in approximately 22 hours [1].
International DataEncryption Algorithm (IDEA) is a block cipher designed by Xuejia Lai and James L. Massey of ETH-Zürich and was first described in 1991. It is a minor revision of an earlier cipher, PES (Proposed Encryption Standard); IDEA was originally called IPES (Improved PES). IDEA was used as the symmetric cipher in early versions of the Pretty Good Privacy cryptosystem.
IDEA was to develop a strong encryption algorithm, which would replace the DES procedure developed in the U.S.A. in the seventies. It is also interesting in that it entirely avoids the use of any lookup tables or S-boxes. When the famous PGP email and file...

...SYMMETRIC ENCRYPTION IS OUTDATED: A COMMON MYTH
Dr. S.A.M Rizvi , Department of Computer Science, Jamia Millia Islamia,New Delhi
samsam_rizvi@yahoo.com
Neeta Wadhwa, Department of Computer Science, Jamia Millia Islamia,New Delhi
neeta.088@gmail.com
Abstract— Cryptography is one of the technological means to provide security to data being transmitted on information and communications systems. Cryptography is especially useful in the cases of financial and personal data, irrespective of the fact that the data is being transmitted over a medium or is stored on a storage device. Cryptanalysis is the science of recovering the plaintext of a message without access to the key.The present paper discusses some of the basic considerations about symmetric and asymmetric encryption. This paper compares the functionality, benefits and suitability of symmetric and asymmetric encryption methodology. It also discusses how to study and analyze the security of different algorithms from cryptanalyst point of view.
Keywords- Symmetric Encryption, Asymmetric Encryption, Cryptanalysis.
I. INTRODUCTION
Cryptography is the art and science of secret writing. The term is derived from the Greek words: ‘kryptos’ means “ hidden” and ‘ logos’ means “ word “[1].
Encryption is the actual process of applying cryptography. Much of...

...protected. ABC Institute knows how sensitive this information is and have raised several concerns about the security between the two companies. There has been an ongoing debate over which type of security measure should be used to protect the data, asymmetric or symmetric. There are two questions that we need to ask ourselves: is one is better than the other and which one will protect our information to the fullest possible length? Or is there a way to use both types ofencryption that would maximize our protection efforts? It’s time to explore our options for keeping our information under lock and key.
To truly be able to decide which encryption type would work best we must first understand how they work and the components that define each. Both asymmetric and symmetric encryption use a key “that is applied to the text of a message to change the content in a particular way” ("Description of symmetric," 2007). Keys can be anything from a random set of letters or numbers to words or a mixture. This is where we, as humans, create our own fault because we often use common patterns for passwords/keys. This allows hackers to create a dictionary of commonly used passwords and preform a dictionary attack on the network.
Symmetric encryption is the process of using a key to turn plain text into ciphertext. Once you have encrypted the text you can send it to the desired receiver. The receiver will have to...

...Enhanced DataEncryption Algorithm for Next Generation Networks
ABSTRACT
In an age where data transmission over the network has become a vital aspect of communication and information sharing it is very essential to ensure robust data security. Keeping the above fact in mind, we aim to enhance the existing security standards by designing a more efficient Encryption Algorithm. In this paper we propose the idea of using a combination of AES-DES and incorporating it in the Feistal structure. Being a hybrid of two powerful encryption techniques, the algorithm would be an efficient and reliable encryption standard.
General Terms
Data Security, Hybrid Structure, Algorithm.
Keywords
AES, DES, Hybrid, Encryption Time, Avalanche Effect, Throughput, CPU Usage.
INTRODUCTION
The Internet holds an important role for data transmission and sharing. Therefore, encryption is used to secure data transmission. Encryption achieves security effects that make the secret messages unreadable. This is known as Cryptography
[1]
.
The main objective of Cryptography is to communicate securely in such a way that the true message cannot be intercepted by an attacker. There are two types of cryptographic schemes available on the basis of key. They are:
Symmetric...

...Feasibility Evaluation of Symmetric Key Encryption
Techniques for Wireless Channel and Disk Storage
Md Asif Mushtaque1, Mr. Khushal Singh2
School of Computing Science and Engineering, Galgotias University
Abstract— Network security has become very important and challenging issue in this world. Cryptography is a technique that
provides security for the sender and receiver to exchange their information over a network. There are basically two types of
cryptography technique- Symmetric and Asymmetric. Symmetric key algorithm is also categorized into two parts Stream
Cipher and Block Cipher. In this paper, we analyzed feasibility of Symmetric Key Block Cipher Encryption techniques for
storage space with their advantages and disadvantages and also presented the possible attacks on these algorithms. The main
objective of analyzing the feasibility for Storage space, because to increase the transmission speed over wireless channel it is
necessary to reduce the size of the encrypted data.
Keywords— Space complexity, Encryption Algorithm, AES, Serpent,, RC5, Rijndael, Symmetric Key, Cryptography, Private
Key, Blowfish. Wireless sensor network.
I. INTRODUCTION
In this era of information technology, network security is
very important to secure our data from unauthorized user; the
information should be secure while transmitting from sender
to receiver. Cryptography is a technique or method that...