Dasar Perlindungan Tanaman - Siti Subandiyah

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Pengertian, Arti Penting, Cakupan
Perlindungan Tanaman

Siti Subandiyah
2012

Food production
• Food production is the activities conducted in
agriculture
• Agriculture: the production of food, feed, fiber
and other goods by the systematic
growing/harvesting of plants, animals and
other life forms.
• "Agriculture" is also short for the study of the
practice of agriculture – more formally known
as agricultural science

• World population is increasing leading to the
increasing of food need, however the increase of food
production is not as in the same rate to the increase
of population, but lower.
• Food crops must compete with 30,000 species of
weeds, 3,000 species of nematodes and 10,000
species of plant-eating insects
• The importance of plant protection is to sustain and
increase food production
• Plant protection involves significantly and widely in
agriculture, industrial applications including
pesticides, growth hormones, fertilizers, sanitations
etc.

• The estimate of pre-harvest loss caused by pests to
principal food and cash crops is 42% of potential
production on a global basis.
• This alarmingly high loss to pests in the crop
production system suggests that the most
economical and practical approach for increasing
food
food production to meet growing demands would be
the development and utilization of IPM (Integrated
Pest Management) systems
• This will require improved plant protection
technology and better trained technicians and
farmers

Organisme Pengganggu Tanaman
(OPT)
• OPT : semua jasad yang menyebabkan
kerusakan tanaman dan menurunkan hasil
produksi
produksi tanaman
• Jasad yang dianggap sebagai OPT didasarkan
pada kepentingan dan aktivitas manusia
• Di luar kepentingan dan aktivitas manusia
semua jasad adalah bagian dari suatu
ekosistem

Pengertian Perlindungan Tanaman
• Perlindungan Tanaman : Kisaran tindakan atau
langkah-langkah untuk mencegah dan mengurangi
penurunan hasil tanaman berdasarkan pengetahuan
ilmiah terhadap ekologi dan ekonomi
• Pengendalian OPT : Kisaran tindakn dan langkahlangkah untuk mengelola OPT karena merugikan bagi manusia (dan kepentingannya), terhadap ekologi dan
ekonomi
• Management Kesehatan Tanaman : Segala upaya
untuk mengelola tanaman agar tetap sehat terhindar
dari berbagai kerusakan dan tekanan untuk mencapai
hasil yang maksimal dengan pencegahan terhadap
gangguan oleh OPT dan lainnya

Losses caused by pest

Table 1—Estimated crop losses due to plant diseases by region, 1988–90

Region

US$ in billion

Percent of potential production

43.8

14.2

Former Soviet Union

8.2

15.2

North America

7.1

9.7

Latin America

7.1

13.5

Europe

5.8

9.8

Africa

4.1

15.7

Asia

Source: Oerke et al. (1994).

Table 2—Estimated crop losses due to plant diseases by crop, 1988–90

US$ in billion

Percent of potential
production

Rice

33.0

15.1

Wheat

14.0

13.6

Potatoes

9.8

16.4

Maize

7.8

10.9

Region

Source: Oerke et al. (1994).

World Agricultural Cake of plant losses

Rice Losses due to pests and diseases

Corn losses due to diseases

Chili Losses due to Pests and
Diseases

Cabbage Losses due to pests and
diseases

Sugarcane losses due to pests and
diseases

Cacao Losses due to Pests and
Diseases

Plant Diseases
Plant diseases caused by pathogens, included:
- Fungi
-Bacteria
- Phytoplasma
- Viruses
- Protozoa
- Nematodes

Bacterial Plant Diseases
Caused by
Xanthomonas
oryzae pv. oryzae

Stewart Wilt of Corn
caused By Pantoeae
stewrtii subsp
stewartii

Bacterial blight of Cassava
caused by Xanthomonas
Campestris pv manihotis

Plant Pathogenic Fungi

Alternaria porii

Rust disease of peanut caused by Puccinia
arachidis

Corn Ear Rot caused by Fusarium moniliforme

Plant Pathogenic Fungi

Wilt Disease of Solanacea caused by
Ralstonia solanacearum...
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