In 1913 the 13th Dalai Lama expelled Qing's representatives and troops from what is now the Tibet Autonomous Region. While the expulsion was seen as an assertion of Tibetan autonomy, Tibet's proclaimed independence was not accepted by the government of China, nor did Tibet receive foreign diplomatic recognition and in 1945 China's sovereignty over Tibet was not questioned by the United Nations. Following a decisive invasion and battle at Chamdo in 1950, the Communist Party of China gained control of the region of Kham to the West of the Upper Yangtze River. The next year the 14th Dalai Lama and his government signed the Seventeen Point Agreement. In 1959, he together with a group of Tibetan leaders and followers fled to India and set up the Government of Tibet in Exile in Dharamshala. Beijing and the Government-in-exile disagree over when Tibet became a part of China, and whether the incorporation into China of Tibet is legitimate according to international law. Since what constitutes Tibet is a matter of much debate (see map, right), neither its size nor population are simple matters of fact, due to various entities claiming differing areas as part of "Tibet". | |
The history of the Tibetan Government in Exile began in 1949, when China invaded Tibet. Until this point, Tibet was an independent entity. China quickly took control of Tibet, and in 1959 His Holiness the Dalai Lama fled to India, after leading several unsuccessful attempts to liberate Tibet from Chinese administration. He founded the CTA and began to work to preserve traditional Tibetan religious practices, culture, and education among the Tibetans who followed him to India. The Tibetan Government in Exile includes a full cabinet with officials who focus on issues like education, public service, religion, culture, health, finances, and security. It also includes a parliament, and in 2001, Tibetans around the world united to elect a Prime Minister, Professor Venerable Samdhong...
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