In the diet of every nation, milk is considered as nature’s perfect food. The consumption of milk and its food products have been increased as a sign of prosperity. The growing underdeveloped countries in the last few decades have adopted milk and its food products in their diets. Milk can be defined as the fresh and clear lacteal secretion practically free from colostrums and obtained by the complete milking of one or more milky animals like cow, buffalo, goat etc. In human beings milk is consumed as supplementary food for lifelong.
Traditionally, milk was used to be collected directly from the milk producing animals like cow, buffalo etc. which were reared by individuals or looked after by a special class of people called cowherds or milkmen. But in recent years, due to advancement of science there are now the dairy industries which collect and process huge quantities of milk at a time by the process of pasteurization. Pasteurization of milk ensures the destruction of pathogenic micro-organisms present in milk. Pasteurisation is the process of heating every particle of milk or milk products to atleast 63°C for 30 minutes or to atleast 71.5°C for 15 seconds or to an approved temperature. Then, it shall be cooled immediately to a temperature of 4°C or less and should be retained at that temperature until delivery.
DIARY INDUSTRY IN INDIA
Today, India is 'The Oyster' of the global dairy industry. It offers opportunities galore to entrepreneurs worldwide, who wish to capitalize on one of the world's largest and fastest growing markets for milk and milk products. A bagful of 'pearls' awaits the international dairy processor in India. The Indian dairy industry is rapidly growing, trying to keep pace with the galloping progress around the world. As he expands his overseas operations to India many profitable options await him. He may transfer technology, sign joint ventures or use India as a sourcing center for regional exports. The liberalization of the Indian economy beckons to MNC's and foreign investors alike. India’s dairy sector is expected to triple its production in the next 10 years in view of expanding potential for export to Europe and the West. Moreover with WTO regulations expected to come into force in coming years all the developed countries which are among big exporters today would have to withdraw the support and subsidy to their domestic milk products sector. Also India today is the lowest cost producer of per litre of milk in the world, at 27 cents, compared with the U.S' 63 cents, and Japan’s $2.8 dollars. Also to take advantage of this lowest cost of milk production and increasing production in the country multinational companies are planning to expand their activities here. Some of these milk producers have already obtained quality standard certificates from the authorities. This will help them in marketing their products in foreign countries in processed form. The urban market for milk products is expected to grow at an accelerated pace of around 33% per annum to around Rs.43,500 crores by year 2005. This growth is going to come from the greater emphasis on the processed foods sector and also by increase in the conversion of milk into milk products. By 2020, the value of Indian dairy produce is expected to be Rs 20,00,000 million. Presently the market is valued at around Rs 12,00,000 million. India with 134mn cows and 125mn buffaloes, has the largest population of cattle in the world. Total cattle population in the country as on October'00 stood at 313mn. More than fifty percent of the buffaloes and twenty percent of the cattle in the world are found in India and most of these are milch cows and milch buffaloes.
Indian dairy sector contributes the large share in agricultural gross domestic products. Presently there are around 70,000 village dairy cooperatives across the country. The co-operative societies are...