India has the highest livestock population in the world with 50% of the buffaloes and 20% of the world’s cattle population, most of which are milch cows and milch buffaloes. India’s dairy industry is considered as one of the most successful development programmes in the post-Independence period.
In the year 2006-07the total milk production in the country was over 94.6 million tones with a per capita availability of 229 gms per day. The industry had been recording an annual growth of 4% during the period 1993-2005, which is almost 3 times the average growth rate of the dairy industry in the world. Milk processing in India is around 35%, of which the organized dairy industry account for 13% of the milk produced, while the rest of the milk is either consumed at farm level, or sold as fresh, non-pasteurized milk through unorganized channels.
Dairy Cooperatives account for the major share of processed liquid milk marketed in the India. Milk is processed and marketed by 170 Milk Producers’ Cooperative Unions, which federate into 15 State Cooperative Milk Marketing Federations. Over the years, several brands have been created by cooperatives like Amul (GCMMF), Vijaya (AP), Verka (Punjab), Saras (Rajasthan). Nandini (Karnataka), Milma (Kerala) and Gokul (Kolhapur).
Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu are the milk surplus states in India. The manufacturing of milk products is obviously high in these milk surplus States. Exports of dairy products have been growing at the rate of 25% per annum in the terms of quantity terms and 28% in terms of value since 2001. Significant investment opportunities exist for the manufacturing of value-added milk products like milk powder, packaged milk, butter, ghee, cheese and ready-to-drink milk products.
India has emerged as the largest milk producing country in the world with present level of annual milk production estimated as 94.5 million tonnes. We expect a production level of 135 million tonnes by the year 2015. India has a large livestock population base constituting 278 million livestock including 180.5 million cattle, 82.8 million buffaloes, 4 million sheep and 9.2 million goats. The livestock population is projected to increase to 322 million by the year 2015. The large livestock population is raised primarily on crop residues and grazing in the common property including basement. The forest area, which was a major source of grazing, is no longer available to livestock breeders especially landless people. As a consequence, the available feed resources fall short of the nutritional requirement. The shortfall is estimated as 59.9 million tonnes for the green fodder and 19.9 million tonnes for dry fodder. This shortfall is likely to increase by 2015 to 63.5 million tonnes of green fodder and 23.56 million tonnes of dry fodder.
Dairying is an important source of subsidiary income to small/marginal farmers and agricultural labourers. The manure from animals provides a good source of organic matter for improving soil fertility and crop yields. The gobar gas from the dung is used as fuel for domestic purposes as also for running engines for drawing water from well. The surplus fodder and agricultural by-products are gainfully utilized for feeding the animals. Almost all draught power for farm operations and transportation is supplied by bullocks. Since agriculture is mostly seasonal, there is a possibility of finding employment throughout the year for many persons through dairy farming. Thus, dairy also provides employment throughout the year. The main beneficiaries of dairy programmes are small/marginal farmers and landless labourers. According to World Bank estimates about 75 per cent of India's 940 million people are in 5.87 million villages, cultivating over 145 million hectares of cropland. Average farm size is about 1.66 hectares. Among 70 million rural...