D2, You Could Include Examples of What Happens When Homeostatic Mechanisms Do Not Function Efficiently and the Resulting Symptoms

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D2
You could include examples of what happens when homeostatic mechanisms do not function efficiently and the resulting symptoms. E.g. Irregular heartbeat or inability to control blood sugars.

Irregular heartbeat.
I will be firstly talking about an irregular heartbeat.
An irregular heartbeat is an arrhythmia also called dysrhythmia. Heart rates can also be irregular. A normal heart rate is 50 to 100 beats per minute. Arrhythmias and abnormal heart rates don't necessarily occur together. Arrhythmias can occur with a normal heart rate, or with heart rates that are slow called bradyarrhythmias - less than 50 beats per minute. Arrhythmias can also occur with rapid heart rates called tachyarrhythmias - faster than 100 beats per minute. Arrhythmias may be caused by many different factors, including: coronary artery disease, electrolyte imbalances in your blood (such as sodium or potassium), changes in your heart muscle, injury from a heart attack and healing process after heart surgery. Irregular heart rhythms can also occur in "normal, healthy" hearts. An arrhythmia can be silent and not cause any symptoms. A doctor can detect an irregular heartbeat during a physical examination by taking your pulse or through an electrocardiogram. When symptoms of an arrhythmia occur, they may include: Palpitations, Pounding in your chest, Dizziness or feeling light-headed, Fainting, Shortness of breath, Chest discomfort and Weakness or fatigue. Treatment depends on the type and seriousness of your arrhythmia. According to med net ‘’some people with arrhythmias require no treatment. For others, treatments can include medication, making lifestyle changes, and undergoing surgical procedures’’. A variety of drugs are available to treat arrhythmias. These include: Antiarrhythmic drugs; these drugs control heart rate and include beta-blockers. Anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy; these drugs reduce the risk of blood clots and stroke, these include warfarin or aspirin. Another blood thinner called Pradaxa (dabigatran) was approved in 2010 to prevent stroke in people with atrial fibrillation. Because everyone is different, it may take trials of several medications and doses to find the one that works best for you.

People with irregular heartbeats have to change their life style, for example if they smoke they would have to quit because the heart will be in enough stress from trying to pump blood around the body it will also be getting clogged up with tar making it even harder. They cannot do certain types of exercise as it will also put more strain on their heart and potentially make them feel worse and not better. Having an irregular heartbeat affects the homeostasis of the heart the most; it is affected by a different heart rhythm all the time which means the blood is pumped out of the heart at different rates.

Having an irregular heartbeat disrupts the homeostasis of the body because the heart should beat between 50-100 per minute so having an irregular heartbeat means it can skip one beat but then catch up on another. Homeostasis of the heart is keeping a regular heart rhythm. Lifestyle changes that may have to happen so your heart can work more efficiently it can when you have this medical condition are; stop smoking as this causes damage to your heart like getting clogged up with tar, limit your alcohol intake as this can cause high blood pressure which can cause a heart attack, it also weakens the heart muscles which can affect the lungs, liver, brain and other body systems causing heart failure, find out which activities you arrhythmia occurs more often and avoid them as best as you can and limit or stop your caffeine intake as some people are more sensitive to the affects of it on the body. Medication changes such as warfarin is used to thin the blood which can decrease your chances in having a heart attack, but this will not help your heart to beat more normal.

COPD
Now I will be talking about COPD (chronic...
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