1.1 The sequence of and the rate of development
Babies at birth most are born around the 40th week of pregnancy. Babies less than 37 weeks are described as premature. Premature babies are likely to need a little more time to reach the same levels of development as a full term baby. Babies are born with many reflexes, these are physical observations we can make and are linked to survival such as: * Swallowing and sucking reflexes ensure the baby can feed and swallow milk. * Rooting reflex will move the babies head to look for a nipple or teat if its cheek or mouth is touched to help the baby find milk. * Grasp reflex will enable the baby to put their fingers around an object that has touched the palm of their hand. * Startle reflex will move a babies arms outwards and clench their fists when they hear a sudden sound or see a bright light. * Walking and standing reflex will usually happen if a baby is held upright with their feet on a firm surface and they will make stepping movements. Other observations you will make will be:
* Cognitive – This is where babies will recognise the smell and sound of their mothers voice. * Communication – This is when their cry if they are tired, hungry or distressed. * Social, emotional and behavioural – This is close contact between primary carer and baby when feeding.
Age 0-3 months
May lift head unsteadily. Hands are usually tight shut. Head rolls back if not supported when lifted. Cognitive
Will turn to sounds and listen to a human voice. They will react to light and toys. Communication
Cries if tired, hungry or upset.
Enjoys feeding and cuddling. Smiles and gurgles when happy. Knows parents by scent.
Age 3-6 Months
Has more control of head. Is able to hold objects in hands. Can now roll over.
Begins to repeat simple acts such as banging a musical toy. Has more coordination and is much more alert. Communication
Begins to squeal with pleasure. Starts to babble and coo. Will start to smile more often. Social/Emotional
Has recognised sleep patterns. Know they only have one mother. Age 6-9 months
May attempt to crawl but often end up going backwards. Now have complete head control. Will sit steadily on their own. Cognitive
Starts to understand routines such as bib means food is coming. Will try to grab toys within their reach. Communication
Begins to understand simple words such as up or down. Loves the sound of their own voice. Social/Emotional
Begins to show distress if mother leaves the room. Has greater fear of strangers. Will lift arms to be picked up.
Age 9-12 months
Anything they pick up goes straight in their mouths. Begin to sound first words. Moves around by rolling or crawling. Cognitive
Begins to respond to own name. Enjoys games such as peek a boo and will point to pictures in books. Communication
Still cries when they want attention. Recognises their name when called. Social/Emotional
Can drink from a cup with a lid. Tries to feed themselves using their fingers. Will have a favourite toy.
Age 12-18 months
Enjoys picture books. Baby now mobile and can stand alone. May try to go up stairs on all fours but not able to come back down. Cognitive
Will copy everyday actions. Uses finger and thumb to pick up small objects. When playing with bricks is able to build a small tower. Communication
Words they say now start to be recognisable. Action songs are much loved eg pat a cake. Start to follow simple instructions. Will start to throw tantrums if they don’t get their own way. Social/Emotional
Likes to look in the mirror at themselves. Has no fear and loves exploring. Needs reassurance from main carer in unfamiliar environments.
Age 18 months-2yrs
Can walk and climb up and down the stairs with assistance. Enjoys scribbling with crayons. Will climb using other furniture to assist them. Cognitive
Plays alone but watches...