There are five main aspects to development; each of these must be explored to make sure I fully understand them before giving examples of them at each stage of development.
Physical Development; this is all about physical movements, fine motor skills (drawing using a pen/pencil correctly), gross motor skills (walking and bouncing a ball), and locomotive movements (balancing and walking). Physical development allows children to gain independence. Cognitive Development; This can also be known as intellectual development, it is strongly linked to communication and language as it is about how the brain processes; from remembering some ones name, to remembering the difference between two different colours. Communication; This covers all forms of communication, physical gestures such as Makaton and sign language, to talking to each other in conversation, it also covers reading and writing and being able to express yourself in a range of ways. It links to Cognitive Development because as we grow we think more about what others say and how that is interpreted and what we are trying to tell others, and how to word things to get a vision across. Social and emotional development; expressing oneself and connecting to other are all social development, trying to create relationships, friendships. It is about getting to know yourself and being aware of how different things make you feel, knowing what behaviour is acceptable and what isn’t. This can also be link to cognitive and language development. Moral Development; this is a sub-set of social and emotional with a strong link to cognitive development. It’s about making decisions to adopt behaviours they create towards others and changing these when it needs to be.
Birth- 1 month
PhysicalBabies at birth have a number of reflexes.
Swallowing and sucking reflexes, this ensures feeding and swallowing for the baby. Rooting reflex when the baby’s head is touched, it allows the baby to move its head looking for a nipple or teat, to fins milk. Grasp reflex it allows them to grasp things immediately when something touches the palm of their hand, wrapping their fingers around the object. Startle reflex when hearing loud noises or seeing bright lights they can reach their arms out and clench their fists to protect themselves. Walking and standing reflex when the baby’s feet are on a firm surface and held upright, babies will start to make stepping movements. CognitiveBabies will start to recognise the smell and sound of their main carers. CommunicationBabies will cry when distressed, in need of food, or tired. Social and emotionalClose contact with primary carers and family and friends.
1 – 3 months
PhysicalBabies begin to startle less and begin to look less curled. Babies spend more time awake, and begin to look around their familiar environment, settling in to a routine. CognitiveBabies may stop crying when they hear familiar voices and start focusing on people’s faces with a range of 20 -25cm. CommunicationCrying continues when distressed, hungry or tired, and the ‘coo’ when happy and content. (Generally from 5-6 weeks) Social and emotionalFleeting smiles when asleep and may make smiles to familiar people and make sounds of joy, when happy.
3 – 6 months
PhysicalBabies start to grow in weight and height and respond to day time and night time, understanding when to sleep, and generally sleeping through the night. Babies become far more alert, and begin turning their heads and lifting to view surrounding. CognitiveBabies begin to notice objects around them and start to reach out to them. CommunicationBabies begin smiling back and making more gurgled noises. Crying becomes more understood as they form their routines. Social and emotionalBabies begin to enjoy bath time, and make...