1: Understand the expected pattern of development for Children and young people from Birth to 19 years old. To understand the expected pattern of child development to adulthood the main characteristics must first be outlined, these include physical development, communication and language development, intellectual and cognitive development and social, emotional behavioural and moral development. However it is also important to understand that every child’s development is holistic and they are all unique and will develop at their own rates and pattern of growth to adulthood. Also many of the skills and areas of development inter-twine with each other as some aspects of physical development will be linked to social, behavioural, moral and emotional skills in the overall development and vice versa. During physical development the main factors to consider are; the fine motor skills (writing, threading, painting and drawing), gross motor skills (running, jumping, climbing, skipping and balance), general and hand eye coordination. Also in intellectual and cognitive development it is all about developing creative and imaginative skills, using these skills in different ways, problem solving, decision making and using language to explain reasoning for actions. During the social, behavioural, moral and emotional development the key factors to consider are; taking turns, cooperation with others, the development of obvious social skills, self expression and self esteem and learning about feelings of others involved in situations. Within the communication and language development the main areas of focus relate to the use of language to explain reasoning, expressing feelings and describing events also relating to both the use of verbal and non-verbal communication techniques. Physical Development:
The Physical development of children from age 0 to 19 is important to understand within the school and personal setting because some presumptions are made as to how children develop their fine and gross motor skills. A lot of the time these skills are taken for granted however it is important that everyone has their own opportunity to develop in different ways and having the correct supporting infrastructure with people who have the knowledge of this area behind them. 0-3 years:
A period of fast and dramatic development as from birth babies have very little control of their body, with their movements incredibly dependant on other human action, as well as their own ‘reflexes’ of sucking, grasping and gripping with fingers and toes. By the 1st birthday so 12 months most babies have developed movements into a crawl or rolling as they have gradually gained much more control of their body including holding their own weight of their head with improved strength in the gross motor muscles of the body. This development continues into year 2 and allows for walking to be progressed, fingers begin to point to objects proving that the fine motor skills are improving and developing. Also by the age of three they will be able to play with a ball, climb on chairs, furniture and start to have more control over pens, pencils and crayons as well as turning pages in books showing both physical developments in fine and gross motor skills. This will also be evident as they will be able to use cups, feed themselves and starting to walk effectively and exploring the use of bikes, tricycles and other toys of a similar nature (Burnham and Baker, 2011). 3-7 years:
At this stage in physical development children will be able to carry out much more co-ordinated movements and as a result they will be growing in confidence. This will show as the child will be refining motor skills both fine and gross that have already been developed, but having more control on fine motor skills such as cutting, writing names and text and drawing pictures. By the age of 7 the child will be confident in running, hopping, kicking...