2.3 Explain how theories of development and framework to support development influence current practices.
There have been many theories on how children develop and learn, some of the theorists who influence the educators of today on how to best teach children.
Jean Piaget Cognitive
Piaget studied the thinking and logic of children and he believed that children had different logic to adults. Piaget started his theory by observing and studying his own children and concluded that children learn and build their ideas on what they see and experience, not by what they are taught. The more the children see and gain in experience the more their schemas would change and develop as they add new information. This is known as constructivist theory, coming from the word to build Schemas: a child’s construction and conclusions of thoughts and ideas.
Piaget believed there are 4 stages of biological development to show how the brain grows. Assimilation:Child constructs a theory
Equilibrium:the schema stays the same according to their experiences to confirm their idea Disequilibrium:Child has doubts and questions their ideas and tries to work it out Accommodation: Child adjusts her thinking and schema according to the new information.
Piaget theory proposed that children could not fast track through the stages of development and that children would go through but same order (sequence) but would reach stages at different ages depending on their rate of development. Children with disability can have difficulty progressing through the stages and may stop and not proceed any further without intervention.
Cognitive age stages of development
Sensori-motor0-2 Child gains control over their body and uses their senses to understands and recognises objects around them Preoperational stage 2-7Children develop their skills and begin to use language and believe that see and have the same thoughts as them Concrete operational 7-11Practical stage Children begin to use reasoning by applying rules and strategies to their thinking so we less easily deceived by appearances Formal operational11 +Children can think abstractly by multiplying and reading in their head.
B.F Skinner Operant Conditioning
Skinner’s theory was based on the work of Edward Lee Thorndike who with the results of conditioning behaviour of animals, this was called the ‘law of effect’. Skinner went on to further develop this theory by looking at the causes, consequences and reinforcement of behaviour and called his theory ‘Operant conditioning’. Skinner divided his theory into 3 types of actions, Positive, Negative and Punishments. Skinner believed that by repeating and reinforcing the required behaviour people would get desired outcome. Positive reinforcement, praise, stickers, this would be the most effective for learners as they would enjoy the pleasant feeling and would learn and want to keep repeating this pattern of behaviour to achieve and feel successful Negative reinforcement this would be unpleasant for the receiver, they would not like the unpleasant feeling and learn to stop the unwanted behaviour. Punishments this would stop negative behaviour to allow change and stop repeated bad behaviour quickly. He believed that reinforced or attention giving behaviour would be repeated and that by ignoring or not reinforcing behaviour, that would it would change and stop and that punisher would weaken and stop behaviour altogether.
Albert Bandura - Social Learning
Bandura’s theory was based on the belief that children learn through a process called modelling in which children learn through observing and copying from the people and the environment around them, if they are interested enough. Bandura developed this theory further by exploring the cognitive aspects of memory and the retrieval of memory. Children will first copy behaviour, and characteristic, positive or negative from the people nearest...