Cyber Law Contd

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(51). FREEDOM OF SPEECH
Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights calls for the protection of free expression in all media including cyberspace. In comparison to traditional print-based media, the accessibility and relative anonymity of cyber space has torn down traditional barriers between an individual and his or her ability to publish. Any person with an internet connection has the potential to reach an audience of millions with little-to-no distribution costs.

(52). FORGING DATA PROCESS
Forging means to produce false data. This could be false data that you are giving out (e.g. to gain access where you shouldn't), basically this is similar to identity theft, pretending to be someone you are not, or maybe even making up an identity.

There is also an aspect where you can forge (make up) data to fulfill the needs of a study or similar, thus you are pretending to do actual work but are using made up results to support a theory.

(53). HACKING
The word "hacking" has two definitions. The first definition refers to the hobby/profession of working with computers. The second definition refers to breaking into computer systems. While the first definition is older and is still used by many computer enthusiasts (who refer to cyber-criminals as "crackers"), the second definition is much more commonly used.

(54). HARASSMENT
Cyber harassment is typically defined as recurring, unwelcome and aggressive conduct by an individual or a group of people using the Internet or mobile technology aiming to terrify, bother, intimidate, threaten, stalk or harass someone else. It can happen in social networking sites, chat rooms, message boards, email or any electronic environment where other people can communicate. Note that simply posting a personal view or opinion in a forum or a discussion board is not classified as cyber harassment.

(55). HIDDEN TEXT
Hidden text is text that is displayed in such a way as to not be easily readable. Hidden text is most commonly achieved by setting the font color to be the same as the background color, rendering the text invisible unless the user  highlights it. Hidden text can serve several purposes. Often websites use it to disguise spoilers for readers who do not wish to read that text. Hidden text can also be used to hide data from users less Internet-savvy or who are not familiar with a particular website. Hidden text can also be used to display keywords or phrases to a search engine spider that human visitors to the site do not see.

(56). IDENTIFICATION MEANS
The most widely used form of identification means are passwords, proximity cards and proximity key fobs (sometimes also proximity tags or bracelets) and remote controls. Proximity cards and readers are recognized as the industry standard for physical access control. The user brings the card (key fob ...) close to the reader that reads the card and forwards the collected data to the controller. Controller verifies the card's rights and performs the appropriate action.

(57). IMAGE FILE FORMAT
Image File formats are standardized means of organizing and storing digital images. Image files are composed of digital data in one of these formats that can be rasterized for use on a computer display or printer. An image file format may store data in uncompressed, compressed, or vector formats. Once rasterized, an image becomes a grid of pixels, each of which has a number of bits to designate its color equal to the color depth of the device displaying it

(58). INDEPENDENT REGULATOR
This is an independent body or individual that makes Internet regulation consisting of: Censorship of data, and controlling aspects of the Internet such as domain registration, IP address control and more. (59). INFORMATION SYSTEM

Information System is a combination of people, hardware, software, communication devices, network and data resources that processes (can be...
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