Cyber Crimes and General Principles

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CYBER CRIME

Cyber Crime is an evil having its origin in the growing dependence on computers in modern life. A simple yet study definition of cyber crime would be “unlawful acts wherein the computer is either a tool or a target or both”. Defining cyber crimes, as “acts that are punishable by the information Technology Act” would be unsuitable as the Indian Penal Code also covers many cyber crimes, such as e-mail spoofing, cyber defamation etc.

Cyber crimes refers to unauthorized access to computer systems or networks. This activity is commonly referred to as hacking. It involves theft of information contained in electronic form. This includes information stored in computer hard disks, removable storage media etc. Cyber crimes can involve criminal activities that are traditional in nature, such as theft, fraud, forgery, defamation and mischief, all of which are subject to the Indian Penal Code. The abuse of computers has also given birth to a gamut of new age crimes that are addressed by the Information Technology Act, 2000. TYPES OF CYBER CRIME

1.Unauthorized access to computer systems or networks / Hacking This kind of offence is normally referred as hacking in the generic sense.

2.Theft of information contained in electronic form-
Theft may be either by appropriating the data physically or by tampering them through the virtual medium.

3.Email bombing-
This kind of activity refers to sending large numbers of mail to the victim, which may be an individual or a company or even mail servers there by ultimately resulting into crashing.

4.Data diddling-
This kind of an attack involves altering raw data just before a computer processes it and then changing it back after the processing is completed.

5.Salami attacks-
This kind of crime is normally prevalent in the financial institutions or for the purpose of committing financial crimes. An important feature of this type of offence is that the alteration is so small that it would normally go unnoticed. E.g. the Ziegler case wherein a logic bomb was introduced in the bank’s system, which deducted 10 cents from every account and deposited it in a particular account. 6.Denial of Service attack-

The computer of the victim is flooded with more requests than it can handle which cause it to crash. Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack is also a type of denial of service attack, in which the offenders are wide in number and widespread. 7. Virus / worm attacks-

Viruses are programs that attach themselves to a computer or a file and then circulate themselves to other files and to other computers on a network. They usually affect the data on a computer, either by altering or deleting it. They merely make functional copies of themselves and do this repeatedly till they eat up all the available space on a computer's memory. E.g. love bug virus. 8. Logic bombs:-

These are event dependent programs. This implies that these programs are created to do something only when a certain event (known as a trigger event) occurs. 9. Trojan attacks/Trojan Horse:-

This term has its origin in the word ‘Trojan horse’. In software field this means an unauthorized programme, which passively gains control over another’s system by representing itself as an authorised programme. The most common form of installing a Trojan is through e-mail. E.g. a Trojan was installed in the computer of a lady filmdirector in the U.S. while chatting. The cyber criminal through the web cam installed in the computer obtained her nude photographs. He further harassed this lady. 10. Internet time thefts-

Normally in these kinds of thefts the Internet surfing hours of the victim are used up by another person. This is done by gaining access to the login ID and the password. 11. Web jacking-
This term is derived from the term hi jacking. In these kinds of offences the hacker gains access and control over the web site of another. He may even...
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