* Also called substitution.
* It involves trying to make up for feelings of inadequacy or frustration in one area by excelling or overindulging in another. * Example: An adolescent takes up jogging because he failed to make the swimming team. 2. Denial
* A person in denial protects himself from reality – especially the unpleasant aspects of life – by refusing to perceive, acknowledge, or face it. * Example: A woman newly diagnosed with end-stage-cancer says, “I’ll be okay, it’s not a big deal”. 3. Displacement
* In displacement, the person redirects his impulses (commonly anger) from the real target (because that target is too dangerous) to a safer but innocent person. * Example: A patient yells at a nurse after becoming angry at his mother for not calling him. 4. Identification
* In identification, the person unconsciously adopts the personality characteristics, attitudes, values, and behavior of someone else (such as a hero he emulates and admires) as a way to allay anxiety. He may identify with a group to be more accepted by them. * Example: An adolescent girl begins to dress and act like her favorite pop star. 5. Intellectualization
* Also called isolation.
* Intellectualization refers to hiding one’s emotional responses or problems under a façade of big words and pretending there’s no problem. * Example: After failing to obtain a job promotion, a worker explains that the position failed to meet his expectations for climbing the corporate ladder. 6. Introjection
* A person introjects when he adopts someone else’s values and standards without exploring whether they fit him. * Example: An individual begins to follow a strict vegetarian diet for no apparent reason. 7. Projection
* In projection, the person attributes to others his own unacceptable thoughts, feelings, and impulses. * Example: A student who fails a test blames his parents...