Part 1: Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty
Definition of Consumer Satisfaction:
The satisfaction of customer is considered as the popular topic at the practice on marketing and the research as academic in view of the fact that the primary study of Cardozo's (1965) on the effort of customers, their expectations and along with the satisfaction of them. In spite of taking many attempts for measuring and explaining the satisfaction of customer, there is not so much consensus conducting in relation to the definition of the satisfaction of customer (Giese and Cote, 2000). The typical definition of customer satisfaction can be provided as the evaluative judgment of post consumption in relation to the certain product or service (Gundersen, Heide and Olsson, 1996). It is considered as the outcome of the process of evaluative through which expectations of pre purchase are contrasted with performance perception in the time of or after the experience of the consumption (Oliver, 1980).
The concept of the satisfaction of the customer is considered as the concept as most widely recognized which is based on the theory of expectancy disconfirmation (McQuitty, Finn and Wiley, 2000). Oliver developed the theory which proposes that the level of satisfaction is considered as the outcome of difference among the performance as expected and perceived.
The occurrence of the satisfaction can be done when an organization provides better product or services than the expectation of the customers (Positive disconfirmation). In other side, dissatisfaction can be occurred while the worse performance is provided by the organization (Negative disconfirmation). It has been showed by studies that the results of business can be impacted directly and indirectly through the satisfaction of customer. It has been concluded by Luo and Homburg (2007) that the profitability of the business can be affected by the satisfaction of customer positively. The relationship among the patterns of the behavior of the customer has been investigated by the most of the studies (Dimitriades, 2006; Olorunniwo et al., 2006; Chi and Qu, 2008; Faullant et al., 2008). In accordance with these findings, the loyalty of the customer can be enhanced by the satisfaction of the customer; along with this intentions of repurchasing are also influenced by the satisfaction of customer which can be concluded with positive effects a positive word of mouth leads to the positive publicity. By giving the major consideration towards the satisfaction of customer, not surprisingly there are so many researches have been done which are devoted towards the satisfaction determinants investigation. The factors as subjective and objective are assisting to determine the satisfaction for example: subjective factors are the needs of customer, emotions etc and the objective factors are the features of products and services. In application on the airlines industries, there has been occurred so many research studies through which attributes are examined which are found out by the passenger as significant in relation to the satisfaction of customer. It has been found out by Atkinson (1988) that customer satisfaction can be determined by proper scheduling, security, value for money and the staff courtesy. It has been revealed by Knutson (1988) that scheduling, comfort, convenience of goods, prompt service, safety and security, staff friendliness are required. It has been stated by Barsky and Labagh (1992) that passengers’ satisfaction can be influenced by the attitude of the employee, scheduling, goods security, landing on scheduled time etc. Akan (1995) conducted the study where it has been showed that airlines passengers’ satisfaction has the determinant of the staffs’ behavior, scheduling, timeliness, pricing of ticket, productivity and performance, robust schedule planning, etc. The conclusion has been drawn by Choi and Chu (2001) that the top factors of airline industries which can determine the...
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