Customer Orientation

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Customer orientation.
The retailer should verify the characteristics and needs of its targeted consumer and endeavors to please the needs to the highest (Bermann and Evan, 2012). As noted by Scheer and Loos (2002), to categorize the customer-oriented spectrum’s services and products, it is essential to identify appropriate parameters. An appropriate parameter as guideline is the degree of individuality whereby it illustrates the output of orientation of a customer’s individual need based on his personal condition. Furthermore the author classified the individuality under three aspects:

i) No individuality.
This aspect indicates the value of an attribute can not be changed and is fixed. In term of the operation of the local coffee shop, the feature that can apply this aspect is the type of coffee. The owner only used his own home-made and family recipe of the roasted coffee as the main base of all of the coffee drink.

ii) Limited individuality.
This aspect indicates the value of certain feature can be selected from a pre-defined variation whereby more than one values are been offered. The local coffee shop operator can specify the maximum type of coffee mixture or flavors that been offered at the shop. ( etc; offer only eight variation of coffee: mocha, latte, plain, cappuccino, etc).

iii) High individuality.
This aspect indicates that the product is unique whereby for the specification of the value, there are no restrictions. As apply to the local coffee shop, the owner maybe can let the customer decide the extra topping for the coffee. (etc: cinnamon powder, cream, whipping cream, caramel, cocoa powder etc).

In addition, customer orientation has been identified to have a positive outcome on firms' performances (e.g. Ruekert, 1992; Slater and Narver, 1994). Some researchers argue that profit is a result of customer orientation while some others assert, the best approach to beat the rivalry is throughout customer orientation rather than the...
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