A need exists when there is a gap between what customers have and what they would like to have. Wants are the customers’ desire for specific satisfiers of their needs. Motives are customers’ personal desires or drives to satisfy their wants. b.Perception
Perception is how the customer sizes up a product or service by the use of the five senses: sight, hearing, taste, touch, and smell. c.Learning
Learning comes from the customer’s experience through a combination of factors including needs, motives, objectives, cues, responses, and reinforcement. d.Personality
Personality consists of two common factors that influence a customer’s personality: traits and types. e.Lifestyles
Lifestyles are the ways that customers live and are a function of attitudes, interests, and opinions (AIOs). f.Self-concept
Self-concept is the customer’s mental picture of himself or herself, consisting of four different elements: the way they really are (real self), the way they would like to be (ideal self), the way they think other people see them (reference-group self), and the way they see themselves (self-image). 2. List and describe four factors that influence customers’ perceptions of hospitality and travel services. a.Customers use perceptual screens or filters, also known as selective exposure, to screen out the majority of the stimuli to which they are exposed. Only small portions of information from messages are retained. b.Customers twist information based on their perceptual biases to match their own pictures of the world. c.Customers, through selective retention, hold on to information longer that supports their predispositions, beliefs, and attitudes. d.Customers, through the process of psychological closure, round out an image of information that is not fully explained...