Customer-Based Brand Equity for Global Brands: A Multinational Approach Eda Atilgan Serkan Akinci Safak Aksoy Erdener Kaynak
ABSTRACT. Focusing on the dimensions and measurement, this study is based on the concept of brand equity for global brands with empirical evidence from three economically and culturally dissimilar countries—USA, Turkey, and Russia. The brand equity for global brands can be measured under four basic dimensions: perceived quality, brand loyalty, brand associations, and brand trust. Emergence of brand trust as a new dimension instead of brand awareness complies well with recent literature on global branding, global consumption orientation, and corporate reputation. KEYWORDS. Branding and brand management, structural equation modeling, brand equity, global brands
Brand equity has been an issue of increasing importance in recent years. It is deﬁned as the difference in consumer choice between the focal branded product and an unbranded product given the same level of product features (Yoo & Donthu, 2001). In other words, it represents the utility difference in terms of a positive marketing outcome, which is created by a branded product compared to that of the generic version of the same product. In the marketing literature, this incremental utility or positive marketing outcome is viewed both from customer- and
ﬁrm-based perspectives. The consumer-based perspective focuses on “customer mind-set” and is explained with such constructs as attitudes, awareness, associations, attachments, and loyalties (Keller & Lehmann, 2001). The ﬁrm-based perspective, however, uses “product-market outcomes” such as price premium, market share, relative price, and “ﬁnancial-market outcomes” such as brand’s purchase price and discounted cash ﬂow of license fees and royalties (Ailawadi, Lehmann, & Neslin, 2003; Keller & Lehmann, 2001). The “revenue premium” measure developed recently by Ailawadi et al. and deﬁned as the difference in revenue (Net Price × Volume)
Eda Atilgan is Assistant Professor of Marketing, Department of Business Administration, Akdeniz Unviersity, Antalya, Turkey. Serkan Akinci is Assistant Professor of Marketing, Department of Business Administration, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey. Safak Aksoy is Professor of Marketing, Department of Business Administration, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey. Erdener Kaynak, Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Euromarketing, is Professor of Marketing and Chair of the Marketing Program at the School of Business Administration of the Pennsylvania State University at Harrisburg. Address correspondence to Eda Atilgan, Akdeniz University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Department of Business Administration, Antalya, Turkey. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 115
JOURNAL OF EUROMARKETING
between a branded good and a corresponding private label can also be considered within the ﬁrm-based perspective. In sum, there are different approaches to the concept of brand equity depending on the actors, measures, and the ﬁnal purpose of using it. Turning to customer-based brand equity, it is claimed that the conceptualization and operationalization of customer-based brand equity is somewhat elusive (Punj & Hillyer, 2004). Brand researchers have devoted considerable attention to develop and test such brand-related constructs as brand loyalty (e.g., Amine, 1998; Day, 1969; Jacoby & Chestnut, 1978; Yi & Jeon, 2003), awareness (e.g., Bird & Ehrenberg, 1966; Greenberg, 1958; Laurent, Kapferer, & Roussel, 1995; MacInnis, Shapiro, & Mani, 1999), associations (e.g., Uggla, 2004; Van Osselaer & Janiszewski, 2001), perceived quality (e.g., Erdem, Zhao, & Valenzuela, 2004; Teas & Agarwal, 2000), and trust (e.g., Chaudhuri & Holbrook, 2001; Delgado-Ballester, MunueraAlem´ n, & Yag¨...