There are many types of corruption. For most people,
bribery probably comes first to mind when they
hear the word corruption, but other common types
of corruption include nepotism, fraud, and
In talking about different types of corruption, an
important distinction is between administrative
corruption and political corruption.
Another important distinction is between grand
corruption and petty corruption.
Corruption levels can vary within a country for
different types. For example, there may be very little
grand corruption in a country with a relatively clean
elite, but a large amount of petty corruption in the
lower offices of government.
Bribery: An offer of money or favors to influence a
Nepotism: Favoritism shown by public officials to relatives
or close friends.
Fraud: Cheating the government through deceit.
Embezzlement: Stealing money or other government
Administrative Corruption: Corruption that alters the
implementation of policies, such as getting a license
even if you don’t qualify for it
Political Corruption: Corruption that influences the
formulation of laws, regulations, and policies, such as
revoking all licenses, and gaining the sole right to operate the beer or gas monopoly.
Grand Corruption: Corruption involving substantial
amounts of money and usually high-level officials.
Petty Corruption: Corruption involving smaller sums
and typically more junior officials.
•| voting irregularities
nepotism and cronyism
rule of a few
false political promises
paying journalists for favourable coverage of candidates and parties influencing voters by the distribution of money, food and/or drink holding on to power against the will of the people |
Chaotic and Organised corruption|
A well-organised system of corruption in which there is a clear idea:| •
•| of whom to bribe;
how much should be offered...