Curriculum Theories

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  • Topic: Education, The Praxis, Das Model
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1. Critical analysis of the significance of theories, principles and models of inclusive curriculum.

Inclusive curriculum is the educational programme designed to avoid all barriers to learning/student success i.e. the Central of inclusive curriculum design are clarity and flexibility. There are three ways of approaching curriculum theory and practice: curriculum as Product, curriculum as Process, and curriculum as Praxis (practice).

The governing model of describing and managing education today is based on the product model. Education is seen as a technical exercise. Objectives are set, a plan drawn up and then applied and the end product measured. It has influenced education in the UK since the 1970s. An example of this would be such as when a person undertakes a qualification such as a (General Secondary Certificate of Education (G.S.C.E). They study a subject for a number of years on a specific programme and the outcome is measured at the end via an exam and the results are graded. The product model relies heavily on setting of behavioural objectives. The curriculum in based on this approach is essentially, a set of documents for implementation.

In the Process model the curriculum, as such is not a physical thing. It focuses on the interaction of teachers, students and knowledge, so the curriculum is what actually happens in the classroom therefore is a process of communication. In this model there are a number of interactive elements to consider. The teacher should have a clear picture of what their role is within the...

Curriculum as praxis is, in many respects, a development of the process model. While the process model is driven by general principles and places an emphasis on judgment and meaning making, it does not make explicit statements about the interests it serves. It may, for example, be used in such a way that does not make continual reference to collective human well-being and to the emancipation of the human spirit. The praxis model of curriculum theory and practice brings these to the centre of the process and makes an explicit commitment to emancipation. Thus action is not simply informed, it is also committed. It is praxis. it is a process which takes the experiences of both the learner and the teacher and, through dialogue and negotiation, recognizes them both as problematic... it allows, indeed encourages, students and teachers together to confront the real problems of their existence and relationships... When students confront the real problems of their existence they will soon also be faced with their own oppression. (Grundy 1987: 105)

Kerr defines curriculum as "All the learning which is planned and guided by the school, whether it is carried on in groups or individually, inside or outside the school." ( All learning is planned and guided, we have to pre-consider what we are seeking to achieve and how we are going to go about it. How we formalize this is the curriculum. This leads us into the 3 ways of approaching curriculum theory and practice.

1. Curriculum as Product
2. Curriculum as Process
3. Curriculum as Praxis (practice)

The product model is based on the idea that there are certain skills to master and facts to know. The idea of this model is that knowledge is similar to a product that is manufactured. The assumption is that generally one starts knowing nothing, they are then taught and then one transmits that knowledge to action. The product model consists of a series of steps leading to the product that allows the curriculum to be designed accordingly. The steps are:

Step 1: Diagnosis of need
Step 2: Formulation of objectives
Step 3: Selection of content
Step 4: Organization of content
Step 5: Selection of learning experiences
Step 6: Organization of learning experiences
Step 7: Determination of what to evaluate, and the ways and means of doing it. (

Although the model organises learning quite neatly it is very Pedagogic and...
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