Bella O. Mariñas and Maria Pelagia Ditapat
Estimated population (1995) Public expenditure on education as percentage of Gross National Product (1995) Duration of compulsory education (years) Primary or basic education Pupils enrolled (1995) Teachers (1995) Pupil/teacher ratio Gross enrolment ratio (1995) —Total —Male —Female Net enrolment ratio (1995) —Total —Male —Female Estimated percentage of repeaters (1992)1 Estimated percentage of drop-outs (1995) School-age population out of school (1995) Secondary education Students enrolled (1995) Gross enrolment ratio (1995) —Total —Male —Female Third-level enrolment ratio (1995) Estimated adult literacy rate (1995) —Total —Male —Female Notes: 1. Last year available. Source: UNESCO statistical yearbook, 1998, Paris
(GXFDWLRQDO legislation and SROLF\
The education sector (along with other government agencies) has the task of contributing to the achievement of national development goals espoused in the country’s development plan. The general purpose and goals of education in the Philippines have been cited in the national constitution. Section 3(2), Article XIV of the Constitution states that: All educational institutions shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism, foster love of humanity, respect for human rights, appreciation of the role of national heroes in the historical development of the country, teach the rights and duties of citizenship, strengthen ethical and spiritual values, develop moral character and personal discipline, encourage critical and creative thinking, broaden scientific and technological knowledge and promote vocational efficiency. These goals have been translated into educational policies and further elaborated as the basic (elementary and secondary) education framework. Elementary and secondary education The 1982 Education Act identifies the aims of both elementary and secondary education. For elementary education, the aims are: (a) to provide the knowledge and develop the skills, attitudes and values essential to personal development and necessary for living in and contributing to a developing and changing social milieu; (b) to provide learning experiences which increase the child’s awareness of and responsiveness to the changes in and just demands of society and to prepare him/her for constructive and effective involvement; (c) to promote and intensify the child’s knowledge of, identification with, and love for the nation and the people to which he/she belongs; and (d) to promote work experiences which develop the child’s orientation to the world of work and creativity and prepare him/her to engage in honest and gainful work. The regional level basic education aims and objectives reflect those at the national level, but are modified to suit local conditions and concerns. For secondary education the aims are: (a) the provision of general education that was started at the elementary level; and (b) the preparation of students for college and/or the world of work. 112
11,541,570 – 35 :1 107 108 107 90 89 91 2 30 1,000,000
4,809,863 79 – – 29.7 95 95 94
Curriculum policies and legislation Curriculum policies are usually set forth by the Department of Education, Culture and Sports through various orders, circulars, memoranda and bulletins. They are aligned with national priorities and contribute to the achievement of development goals. However, several laws passed by the national legislature specifically relate to the school curriculum: Section 3(10), Article XIV of the Constitution mandates the study of the Philippine Constitution; Section 6, Article XIV, designates Filipino as the language of instruction; Section 19(2), Article XIV, states that: ‘All educational institutions throughout the country shall undertake regular sports activities in co-operation with athletic clubs and other sectors’. Republic Act No 4723 mandates music teaching in the schools. The most...