In the realms of universal educational system, the term “Curriculum” is widely used. Teacher’s Mind Resources (2011) elucidated that “the word curriculum comes from the Latin word meaning ‘a course for racing’.” By the terminology it self, the definition is so broad that its profoundness, if applied to schools, may define myriad things which might relate to, as what almost all teachers nowadays perceive, as contents to be taught to children. Some also think that a curriculum is a “set of courses for students take in order to reach certain goals in all levels” (wisegeek, 2013). We cannot say that the definition is a fallacy but the meanings are parts and parcel of what the big picture is.
Curriculum is a dynamic, ever-changing series of planned learning experiences. It changes in order to enhance all experiences of the students in schools, as what John Dewey suggests regarding the definition of curriculum as such. Here we notice the relevance for a curriculum to be well-developed so that the goals will be attained. It is mentioned above that these goals are at certain levels. These goals may round about from a micro level, which may pertain to the personal achievement of Diplomas of the students themselves, up to gathering relevant statistics of how good is the aptitude of, an instance, Filipinos compared to other nation’s people. Very comprehensive, John Dewey (1916) defined curriculum as all the experiences of the learner inside and outside the school under the guidance of the teacher.
In order for a curriculum to be structured properly, there are certain factors to be measured in order to achieve the goals. These are the following:
1. Cultural Values-
Ontario Native Literacy Coalition (2001) emphasized how Grundy (1987) defined curriculum and the integration of cultural values. “Curriculum... is not a concept; it is a cultural construction. That is, it is not an abstract concept which has some existence outside and prior to human experience. Rather, it is a way of organizing a set of human educational practices”.
The fundamental teachings of the folks of certain communities which were carried out all throughout the time until now are essential even integrated in the curriculum. This is because these things should be preserved. These cultural values may pertain to as simple as respect, love, peace, equality, and truthfulness. Narrowing down to the values established in a community-based are also included. For Filipinos we have the “Mano po”, and the utterance of the words “po” and “opo”. Curriculum for Liberal Education (2008) explained that the integration of cultural values aims to gain critical and appreciative perspective upon one’s own culture by studying other historical periods and other cultural traditions.
Furthermore, Cultural values which should be well-thought-out can be visible or non-visible. These visible cultural values are Rules, Food, Dress, Language, Music, Dance, Means of Livelihood, Political Behavior, Family, Community, Norms and etc... We also include non-visible cultural values may incorporate philosophy, beliefs and value system.
2. Knowledge of learner-
Oftentimes when we here curriculum, we also associate it with the words “evaluation” and “examination” to be administered to the learners to identify their knowledge, skills, values, or as a whole-level of performance. The learner’s intelligence matters in developing curriculum. The general needs assessment is applied to targeted learners. What kind of doctor do we want to educate it depends mostly on social needs but it can reflect job opportunities, financial rewards and attitudes acquired during process of studding. Sometimes it is very difficult to make balance between these several needs. Needs can be obtained on different ways. It can be done through study of errors in practice. It is very difficult to design curriculum which will fully meet the needs of...