Curriculum and Material Development

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The focus here is on the teaching practices that occur within a program, how these can be characterized, and how quality teaching can be achieved and maintained.

a. Teaching Model and Principles

This book has emphasized the curriculum as a network of interacting system involving teacher, learners, materials, school, administrator, and curriculum planners, and choices ay one level affect other elements in the system. Thus the choice of a particular curriculum philosophy or ideology implies a particular model of teaching. Roberts (1998, 103) compares two teaching models implicit in many language program: the operative model and the problem problem-solving model:

➢ Operative is model the teacher is restricted to meeting the requirements of a centralized system, such as the delivery of a textbook as planned, to a set timescale. Such as limited role, limited to that of curriculum transmission, implies training objectives based of mastery of a set of competencies determined by the centralized syllabus.

➢ Problem solver is model a decentralized curriculum gives teachers greater autonomy in making educational decisions. A diversified teacher to able to diagnose problems and adapt materials and design original learning activities.

The former can viewed as a teaching model compatible with a mechanistic model of organization design and the latter to the organic model. In language teaching programs, teaching models are often based on particular methods or approaches. For example:

• The communicative approach : the focus of teaching is authentic communication; extensive use is made of pair and group activities that involve negotiation of meaning and information sharing. Fluency is a priority.

• The cooperative learning model : students work in cooperative learning situations and are encouraged to work together on common task and to coordinate their efforts to complete task. Rewards system in group

• The process approach : In writing classes, student take part in activities that develop their understanding of writing as a process.

• The whole-language approach : Students are taught to read and write naturally, with a focus on real communication, authentic texts and reading and writing for pleasure.

Rather than drawing approach or method, the teaching model in a program in a program may be based on a coherent set of participles that reflect how teaching and learning should be approached. This is the teaching philosophy of the program and serves as the basis for decisions about classroom methodology.

Articulating a teaching philosophy in this way can help clarify decision relating to choice of classroom activities, materials, and teacher evaluation. In the case of a teaching model that is based on an existing teaching model such as communicative language teaching, the philosophy and principles of the model are accepted as givens : teachers are expected to be familiar with them and to put the principles into practice.

Teacher teaching in different ways. Even thought two teachers work toward identical goals they may choose different ways of getting there. Teachers bring to teaching their own personal beliefs and principles and these help to account for how they teach. Teachers principles are a product of their experience, their training and their beliefs.

Bellows are the example of teacher' principles cited by Breen are:

• selectively focus on the form of the language

• selectively focus on vocabulary or meaning

• enable the learners to use the language

• address learners' mental-processing capacities

• make the new language familiar and manageable

• monitor learner progress and provide feedback

• facilitate learner responsibility

• manage the lesson and the group...
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