Current Directions in Psychological Science

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This book focuses on the ways which people understand figurative language. It is necessary to understand the meaning of metaphor or figurative speech means before testing our daily language for metaphors. The phenomena has many definitions. There is indirect comparison in figurative language. The word is not used as a comparison subject. Aristotle is very significant because he is known to be the first person to give a detailed definition fort he term metaphor. Aristotle defined this term as: ”consists in giving the thing a name that belongs to something else; the transference being either from genius to species, or from species went further.” He believed a metaphor has two parts: topic and vehicle and they had a connection. He called this connection : ground. Through out the history there have been other analysts and they widened the functions of metaphor. It was proven by George Lakoff and mark Johnson that metaphors are necessary in everyday life. Glucksberg argues that figurative language involves the same kinds of linguistic and pragmatic operations that are utilized for ordinary language. Glucksberg's research invesitgates the utilization of expressions in daily life, including conversations about every day matters. Metaphor is the main focus of subject. Idioms, however, are also treated thourughly as is the theory of conceptual metaphor. A new theory of metaphorical grasp is put forward in linguistics and in psychology. Glucksberg argues for what is called the "property attribution model" of metaphorical comprehension. That metaphors are basicly statements like "Trieste is no Vienna", where "Vienna" is not the name of a city, but stands for characterizes Vienna in this case being a cosmopolitan city. Participants can easily adjust themselves to finding metaphorical meanings, even when such meanings are not the only alternative. There are two kinds of operations people use in understanding language; linguistic and pragmatic. Linguistics include such...