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INDUSTRIAL LABOUR
Industrial labour is labour in industry, mostly understood as manufacturing, but can include related service workers, such as cleaners...(en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_labour) INDUSTRIAL labour is also one who are in the participation for the production of good and services and for the betterment of the company. In every industry many rights are given to the labour of all classes and many laws had been made ,providing the labour their due rights in result of their effective job. Relations are made with the labour and created the policies for welfare of labour. Many organizations are working as helping hand for those labour who are unable to get their rights.

LABOUR RELATIONS
Term with the literal meaning of “labour relations” which, given the traditional distinction in Austrian law between Industrie (manufacturing industry) and Gewerbe(small-scale craft production), designates more accurately than the artificial expression industrielle Beziehungen the field of study referred to in English as industrial relations. This field covers the regulation of the employment relationship and in democratic societies has developed, on the basis of legal guarantees (the right to organize and autonomy of collective bargaining), into a relatively autonomous subsystem of society. The characteristics of any given industrial relations system are stamped on it by its most important elements: the institutions and regulatory levels, the actors and the values they pursue, and the functions and effects of regulation.The term labour relations, also known as industrial relations, refers to the system in which employers, workers and their representatives and, directly or indirectly, the government interact to set the ground rules for the governance of work relationships. It also describes a field of study dedicated to examining such relationships. The field is an outgrowth of the industrial revolution, whose excesses led to the emergence of trade unions to represent workers and to the development of collective labour relations. A labour or industrial relations system reflects the interaction between the main actors in it: the state, the employer (or employers or an employers’ association), trade unions and employees (who may participate or not in unions and other bodies affording workers’ representation). The phrases “labour relations” and “industrial relations” are also used in connection with various forms of workers’ participation; they can also encompass individual employment relationships between an employer and a worker under a written or implied contract of employment, although these are usually referred to as “employment relations”. There is considerable variation in the use of the terms, partly reflecting the evolving nature of the field over time and place. There is general agreement, however, that the field embraces collective bargaining, various forms of workers’ participation (such as works councils and joint health and safety committees) and mechanisms for resolving collective and individual disputes. The wide variety of labour relations systems throughout the world has meant that comparative studies and identification of types are accompanied by caveats about the limitations of over-generalization and false analogies. Traditionally, four distinct types of workplace governance have been described: dictatorial, paternalistic, institutional and worker-participative; this chapter examines primarily the latter two types.

Both private and public interests are at stake in any labour relations system. The state is an actor in the system as well, although its role varies from active to passive in different countries. The nature of the relationships among organized labour, employers and the government with respect to health and safety are indicative of the overall status of industrial relations in a country or an industry and the obverse is equally the case. An underdeveloped labour relations system tends to be...
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