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Culture in Ihrm

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Question 1
What are some of the more important ways in which cultures are said to impact upon organisations and management? Critically discuss.

Introduction
Culture consists of beliefs, values and behaviours built over a period of time and are difficult to break. Organisations should accept and value diversity to create a positive, successful and enduring work environment. Patrick and Kumar (2012) explain that this is because culture affects the way individuals’ process information, negotiation and decisions. Thus competitive advantage depends on how effectively employees are managed with culture-related pressures, expectations and incentives.

Body
The impact of cultural differences on organisations can be understood as Lamoreaux and Morling (2011) describe uncertainty avoidance as the extent to which individuals accept ambiguity and characterise aggression and intolerance. ‘In high uncertainty avoidance cultures, people prefer stricter laws, safer environments and certainty in religious beliefs (Lamoreaux & Morling 2011, pp. 302). This implies an unwillingness to take risks, accept organisational change, and reluctance to take personal initiatives outside prescribed roles. These employees develop an external locus of control that luck and destiny cause events in their lives. Lamoreaux and Morling (2011) explain that this creates pressure for management to set challenging goals, continuously upgrade knowledge and provide training and development.

Individual identity is membership in family, caste and community whose norms and values need to be unquestioningly accepted. Patrick and Kumar (2012) explain that high performers are not satisfied with a work well done. This would restrict their ability to achieve self-efficacy, due to the lack of self-autonomy and self-fulfilment and reduce cohesiveness, commitment and cooperation. Plessis (2012) examines that this creates the need for managers to educate employees and themselves on different cultures and...