Culture, Hospitality and Tourism
The word “culture” cannot be defined with a precise and singular definition. In fact, Raymond Williams, a leading cultural theorist, pointed out “Culture is one of the two or three most complicated words in the English language” (Williams 1983:87). There are more than one hundred definitions of culture depending upon the various academic disciplines, ranging from literacy studies to anthropology and sociology. Different scholars have different views about what constitutes the concept and meaning of culture. Even though culture has different definition and meaning, the term used to define it, is used as if its meaning is clear. Culture has often been defined as the people’s way of life. It is “that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, customs and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society” (Tylor, 1874, p.1). Culture defines the very way we live. It’s not just that people from different country have different religion, the people living within the same country have different culture as well. Culture comprises an entire set of social norms and responses that condition people’s behavior; it is acquired and inculcated, a set of rules and behavior patterns that an individual learns but does not inherit at birth, it enables people to make sense out of their world, and it is foreign only to those outside (Hall, 1973; Roeber and Kluckhorn, 1952). Fundamentally, groups of individuals develop their own environment as an adaptation to the physical environment, and they pass down their customs, practices, and traditions from generation to generation (Harris and Moran, 1979).Culture has many sides and to understand the true meaning of culture one must understand the meaning of these sides. Culture refers to the social heritage, traditions, way of life, human environment, dress appearance, food eating habits, behavior, rules of social life, values and norms, beliefs and attitudes, sense of self, ways of thinking and ding things, work and leisure habits, time, cognitive knowledge, mental process learning, language, information and communication, symbols meanings, perceptions, religious, differences and similarities and material life etc. Many people believe culture manifests itself in music, literature, painting, sculpture, theatre, and film. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization described culture as the set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of society or a social group that encompasses, in addition to art and literature, lifestyle, ways of living together, value systems, traditions and beliefs (UNESCO, 2002). Culture In terms of hospitality context is bringing in people from different age, sex, location, society or county together with different beliefs, values and norms to work in coordination with each other. It also represents different food, drinks, literature, music, dance, sports etc. Today the world has indeed become a smaller place due to the advances in the high speed transportation, television, telecommunication and internet which we are very thankful of. People today from different walk of life with similar age from different location or countries are alike as they wear the same kind of clothing or designers, even eat the same kind of food and drink e.g. Mc Donald, pizza hut, and coca- cola and probably listen to similar music, wear the same adidas running shoes etc. Globalization does not have a universal definition but it can be referred to the intensification of global interconnectedness, particularly the spread of capitalism as a production and market system. It also refers to innovations in technologies of communication and transportation, which are reconfiguring social relationships spatially, temporally, and in terms of speed (McGrew 1992; Robins 1997; Tomlinson 1997). People from all over the world are moving around to different location or different countries...
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