Following the famous and multitudinously citied definition of sustainable development of the Brundtland Report (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987) as "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs", sustainable tourism can be defined as tourism that ―meets the needs of present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunities for the future. In this case therefore, the success of Lucerne in becoming a world renowned tourist spot is rooted in the fact that it has envisaged the management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems (Blancas et al., 2010). These different resources or better yet, environments, has been created through a successful long-term vision which takes into account various and different factors as will be discussed below;
From an economic point of view, non-decreasing economic well-being (i.e. the increase or at least the preservation of economic well-being) is a superior objective, if not the dominant objective in Lucerne. Frommer (2012) states that the local Swiss government takes every possible measure in Lucerne to ensure that today's level of economic wealth should either increase or at the very least stay constant over time therefore giving the opportunity for tourist visitors to appreciate the quaint and luxury lifestyle that can be witnessed within the district. The fulfilment of this objective by the local government, as stated by Frommer (2012), will ensure that service in the tourist sector will not suffer, as for example - guest satisfaction or the diversity of supplied services - in the context of meeting the expectations of visitors to Lucerne and who are likely to request the high standard of service that is expected from a reputed Swiss county as Lucerne
Leakage of tourism revenue is also another aspect of the economy that Lucerne has managed to avoid. According to Sandbrook (2010), this factor is an important issue in the context of sustainable tourism. Revenue leakage may compromise the economic development of a host region and of the local population. If a large part of the generated income benefits non-residents, the main economic sustainability criteria, i.e. the strengthening of economic well-being, is at risk. However, Lucerne is 100 percent serviced and operated by the native population and most of the business operated within the city is owned majorly by the local population
Sandbrook (2010) also states that revenue leakage can also be defined as the failure of tourist spending to remain in the destination economy; e.g. caused by foreign ownership of hotels and other touristic infrastructure or because of the tourists' demand for non-local, high-quality products as e.g. Kodak film, specialist food or Guinness beer (Budaneau, 2005). The only benefit left over for the local community is in low-paid, lower skilled employment (SNV, 2009). The level of leak-age can also be seen as a reflection of the local capacity and ability to supply the goods and services demanded (Sandbrook, 2010). In addition, evidence was found that high leakage is often associated with mass tourism (Hampton, 1998 cited in Sandbrook, 2010) and with high-end, luxury tourism (Scheyvens, 2002 cited in Sandbrook, 2010).
However, this is not the case in Lucerne as evidence put forward by Frommer (2012) show that there is minimum leakage of tourist revenue in Lucerne due to the strict, immigration laws that were passed and duly followed within Switzerland. Furthermore, Frommer (2012) argues that since the town’s tourism is based on cultural tourism, everything...