How parent styles and culture can affect child development is an interesting question. Really the question isn't how it can affect development but how will it affect child development. No matter where or how a child is raised it will be affected by both parent styles and culture, even if it's a lack of them.
Parents parent in many different styles. It would be close to impossible to cover all the different styles that people use or state but for the sake of this entry I'll use Diana Baumrind's styles (Baumrind, D. as stated by Darling, N. 1999). These are indulgent, authoritarian, authoritative, and uninvolved.
Indulgent parents tend to more responsive than demanding. They tend to warm and responsive but basically leave their children do whatever they want and place no or little responsibility on the child. These children often grow up to have behavioral problems and tend to do more poorly in school. It was stated in the article by Nancy Darling (http://www.athealth.com/Practitioner/ceduc/parentingstyles.html) that these children will, however, have higher esteem, better social skills and lower levels of depression. But I would have to disagree with some this. They may have higher self esteem because the child thinks the world revolves around himself/herself but due to this fact I doubt they have the social skills to really fit in. And when reality set in or doesn't work for the child difficulties can only follow.
Authoritarian parents are demanding and directing but not very responsive. These parents set rules and expectations and expect the child to live by them. The children of authoritarian parents often do alright in school both academically and behaviorally but have poorer social skills, lower self esteem and higher levels of depression. In these families punishment is usually harsh and punitive. Children often times grow up not be sure of their own decisions because their...