CULTURAL INFLUENCES ON SERVICE- INTRODUCTION
Culture has many definitions, and it affects everything people do in their society because of their ideas, values, attitudes, and normative or expected patterns of behaviour. By Mulholland Culture is a complex concept, and no single definition of it has achieved consensus in the literature. So, out of the many possible definitions examined, the following definition guides this study: culture is a set of shared and enduring meaning, values, and beliefs that characterize national, ethnic, or other groups and orient their behaviour. It is said that culture exists only by comparison. The country scores on the dimensions are relative - societies are compared to other societies. Without make a comparison a country score is meaningless. These relative scores have been proven to be quite stable over decades. The forces that cause cultures to shift tend to be global or continent-wide. This means that they affect many countries at the same time, so that if their cultures shift, they shift together, and their relative positions remain the same (Hofstede, 2012). National culture is an important factor influencing expectations and perceptions of service quality and its satisfaction. Different cultural groups attach different importance to service quality criteria. Tourism is one of the many sectors of the economy, which services cater directly to tourist needs. However, tourists create demand for indirect services(financial, medical, electricity,..) as well. Resulting all of this, a tourism product is mostly a service rather than a tangible product. As far as service encounter, we define 3 process steps, which are: 1, interaction between the customer and the firm or service provider, 2,a period of time during which a provider and a customer confront each other, 3, a “moment of truth”, which means the quality of the services offered to customer. We know three classes of service: the first one is a maintenance-interactive (e.g....
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