Discuss the impact of globalisation on the creative/cultural industries
This essay will aim to include my understanding and perception of the cultural industries, how it developed into the creative industries and how globalisation has impacted this sector through looking specifically at exampled from Sheffield. Originating from the 1940's the Cultural Industries was known as 'The cultural Industry' taken from a book written by Adorno and Horkheimer called ' Dialektik der Aufklarung' from the chapter 'Dialect of Enlightenment'. They thought of the Creative Industry as ' art with special, exceptional forms of Human creativity' (Hesmondhalgh 2007). By the late 1960's the Cultural Industry became comodified and was intertwining with other industries such as film, television and music as these were socially popular, the cultural Industry was re-named 'The Cultural Industries'. Through new service industry growth and new labour, the Cultural Industries was turned into 'The Creative Industries' in the 1990's and is still known as this in current society. 'The creative Industries are those Industries that are based on individual creativity, skill and talent' (DCMS). These creative industries include 13 categories: Advertising, architecture, arts and antique's, computer and video games, crafts, design, designer fashion, film, and video, music, performing arts, publishing, software, TV and Radio. From when the cultural/ creative industries were first produced they have achieved huge industry growth rates for example: between 1997 and 2001 the UK's creative industries grew by 8% per annum, with the most popular sector being TV and Radio and around about 122,000 organisations traded in the creative Industries since 1997( Montgomery, J 2007). This service Industry growth is mainly down to Globalisation which is defined as ' the world becoming more interdependent and integrated' (Moynagh and Worsely, 2008).
Globalisation links with economic power and consumption for mass markets and making them become global. They do this by customizing products, making them innovative and unique, and by using sub-contractors hope to get the products known globally. For example; in the fashion industry a designer will create a product that they want to produce globally to a specific target market, once they have created the product they will need to manufacture the product, ship the product and make it available for a global market to purchase. They will do this by having products made in countries such as Turkey or China as this method is cheaper and quicker, and have it shipped over to other companies to make it global. Through the virtual innovations such as the internet, and communication systems, the product can be marketed globally. 'Globalisation also involves the global integration of production factors and services. ‘National' industries ‘selling abroad' are increasingly giving way to the organisation of production and distribution on a global scale, sourcing materials, labour, services etc. across borders with little or no attachment to particular places' (Brown et al 2000).
There are many Pro's and Con's regarding Globalisation, due to its features and tensions. Globalisation features; to name a few include aspects such as transportation and distribution: getting the goods to the destination from the manufacturers as quick as possible, Growth of Cities: Many Cities are moving from rural areas to urban areas through the growth of industries and trade, Free trade: to allow companies to trade without government barriers or trade policy, Multi Nationals: Different nationality companies will be working along side one another in one country and Global Culture: the development of standardisation and the idea that everything will start to look ad feel the same. Although this means that buying and selling overseas will become more integrated and connected through fast distribution and manufacturing, it also creates problems known as...
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