Cultural Dynamics in Assessing Global Markets
|1. |Define: | | | |Cultural sensitivity |Factual knowledge | | |Culture |Interpretive knowledge | | |Ethnocentrism |Cultural values | | |Strategy of cultural congruence |Cultural borrowing | | |Linguistic distance |Material culture | | |Strategy of unplanned change |Aesthetics | | |Social institutions |Strategy of planned change |
2. Which role does the marketer play as a change agent?
Whether or not the marketer is aware of it, he assumes the role of a change agent when he introduces into another culture new ideas or new products requiring some form of change in behavior for acceptance and use of the new idea or product. The international marketer must concern himself with the impact of his actions upon the new culture.
3. Discuss the three cultural change strategies a foreign marketer can pursue.
There are three strategies. (a) Culturally congruent strategy, (b) Strategy of unplanned change, (c) Strategy of planned change. The culturally congruent strategy involves marketing products similar to ones already on the market in a manner as congruent as possible with existing cultural norms, thereby minimizing resistance. A strategy of planned change means deliberately setting out to change those aspects of a culture most likely to offer resistance to predetermined marketing goals. The strategy of unplanned change consists of introducing an innovation and then waiting for an eventful cultural change that will permit the culture to accept the innovation. The essence of unplanned change lies in the fact that the marketer does nothing to accelerate or help to bring about the necessary change where the marketer deliberately sets about to overcome resistance and to cause change that will accelerate the rate of adoption of his product or innovation.
4. “Culture is pervasive in all marketing activities.” Discuss.
Marketers are constantly in the process of adjusting their efforts to the demands of the culture of their markets. Although in the long run they may affect their market’s culture as a result of their efforts, most current activity involves reconciling marketing activity to the immediate culture.
5. What is the importance of “cultural empathy” to the foreign marketer? How does he or she acquire “cultural empathy?”
The importance of “cultural empathy” to the foreign marketer is that being culturally sensitive allows him or her to objectively see, evaluate, and appreciate another culture. A marketer can obtain cultural empathy by studying the culture and living with it. The latter is not always possible, and it may be expedient to hire natives who speak your tongue and their own. This procedure will often give you the intuition which is necessary for success.
6. Why should a foreign marketer be concerned with the study of culture?
A foreign marketer should study culture in order to avoid making blunders which would not be made if he or she had cultural knowledge. Culture should be studied because it affects the consumer’s desire and ability to buy.
7. What is the popular definition of culture? What is the viewpoint of cultural anthropologists? What is the importance of the difference?